The Indo-Aryan languages ​​lose their pursuit

152 6. The Indo-European language family (from approx. 7000 BC) The naming of the Indo-European languages ​​comes from the 19th century. In the older German-speaking tradition, this family is called "Indo-European". This term was first used by Friedrich von Schlegel in 1823. Franz Bopp's comparative grammar from 1816 speaks of "Indian-European" languages. In both name forms, the components each point to the edges of the distribution area, the eastern (Indo) and the western (Germanic or European). If one wanted to apply the criterion of extension exactly, the language family would have to be given the attribute "Indoceltic", if one takes into account the situation in the extreme north-west of Europe, where Celtic, not Germanic languages ​​are common; or also «Indo-Romanian», one thinks of the Pyrenees peninsula in the southwest. In modern German-speaking terminology, one can see a tendency towards alignment with international terms: German Indo-European as an equivalent to English. Indo-European, French indo-european, ital. indoeuropeo or russ. indoevropejskij. Due to the migration of Europeans and the export of European languages ​​overseas since the 16th century and as a result of the colonization of large parts of the world, Indo-European languages ​​are in some form, be it as primary or second languages, as educational or official languages, as commercial languages. or world languages ​​in practically all countries on all continents. Today most of the speakers of Indo-European languages ​​live in three major regions, namely in Europe, in western and southern Asia (from Iran to Bangladesh and Sri Lanka) and in the Americas (especially speakers of English, Spanish and Portuguese). The Indo-European language family is one of the best-researched. In this respect, these languages ​​are particularly suitable for illustrating the unfolding processes of individual historical languages. In the case of the Indo-European languages, this development can be traced back over a period of more than 6000 years, up to a maximum of 4500 BC. This is the period when the basic Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European, began to split up into individual language branches. The process of division thus begins long before the beginning of the written tradition. Those Indo-European written languages ​​with the longest tradition are Mycenaean-Greek (attested since the 17th century BC), Hittite and Luwian (both attested since the 16th century BC). The efforts to identify an Indo-European basic language - in the older usage «Urindo-European», today «Proto-Indo-European - go back even further, to around 7000 BC. On the basis of comparisons of the vocabulary, the grammatical structure and the sound system of the more than 400 Indo-European individual languages, an attempt has been made to reconstruct the phonetics, the basic features of the grammar and elementary designation areas of Proto-Indo-European. The basic language identified in this way is a pure construct, as there is no historical documentation about it. The written language tradition began much later, at a time when the basic language had already split up into regional language branches. Therefore all forms and expressions of the basic language are provided with an asterisk (asterisk) to distinguish them from attested forms; z. B. * septm ‹sieben›> altir. sechtn, middle kymr. since, latin. septem, old north. sjau, oldgl. seofon, got. sibun, lithuania. septyni, old church slav. sedmb, Russian sem ’, alban. shtate, Greek hepta, poor. ewt’n, hethit. sipta-, avest. hapta, altind. sapta, tochar. late, including the relationship between Sanskrit and various ancient European languages ​​was discovered as early as the 18th century. In his famous lecture in Calcutta in 1786, William Jones postulated the common origins of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Celtic and Old Persian. Most of the branches of the Indo-European language have been known for a long time. However, some of the Indo-European languages ​​were identified late, based on inscriptions found at the beginning of the 20th century. These included the Hittite and Tocharians. The tone 154 aind. greek lat. lit. ab. russ. got. engl. nhd. mātármḗtár māter mótyna mati mat '- mother mother tráyas treís, tría trēs trȳs trije tri þreis three three návanéos novus naūjas novnovyj niujis new neu ásti estí est e ~ sti jestjest' became the capital of the empire of is is the hafelarchiv Only discovered in 1905, and the identification of Hittite as an Indo-European language was not possible until 1915. It has been known since 1908 that Tocharian, which has been handed down in texts from sites in northwest China (Dunhuang, Tarim Basin), also belongs to the group of Indo-European languages ​​(see below) ). The problem of the “original home” Despite almost two hundred years of research, the question of the area of ​​origin from which the Indo-European languages ​​spread across Eurasia and the period of time that is set for the regional separation processes are still controversial. The findings on both problem areas are causally related, because the way in which individual language branches are separated out finds different explanations, depending on where the spread of Indo-European began. There has been no shortage of hypotheses about the "original home" in the history of Indo-European Studies. Of the total of nine postulates, only four have some probability, and of these only two remain, which are now being discussed as serious alternatives (Mallory / Adams 1997: 290 ff.). The geographical areas of these original candidates are far apart, so that quite different criteria are emphasized in the arguments for one or the other area. One of the teaching and kinship relationships of Indo-European languages ​​in vocabulary, example words 'mother', 'three', 'new', 'is' (according to Schmidt 1970: 23) 155 opinion - an older hypothesis that has recently been taken up again - looks at the Balkan region than the presumed area of ​​origin. According to the other location determination, the outlines of the original home in the area between the Caspian Sea, Volga and Don are to be looked for. The Balkans? The hypothesis of the original Balkan homeland suffers from the fact that here purely linguistic considerations are in the foreground, but that the archaeological evidence is too fragile. In addition, there are also internal contradictions in the linguistic-historical reconstruction, especially with regard to the problem of the substrate languages ​​(i.e. the pre-Indo-European languages ​​overlaid by Indo-European languages) and the old Indo-European-Uralic convergences (see Chapter 7). The localization of the original home of the Indo-Europeans has been directly linked to the question of the spread of agriculture, and the hypothesis of the development of the Proto-Indo-European basic language in the Balkan region has to do with it. The beginnings of arable farming and the motivation for growing crops in Southeastern Europe are known in terms of absolute time, but who were the first Europeans to get used to the agrarian way of life and which languages ​​they spoke is still controversial today. As recently as the 1980s, many archaeologists were convinced that soil-building technology had been transferred to Europe from Indo-European populations. This view is based on the hypothesis formulated by C. Renfrew (1987), according to which the original home of the Indo-Europeans is to be sought in Anatolia. From there the Proto-Indo-Europeans are said to have been in the 7th millennium BC. They migrated to south-east Europe and brought agriculture and their language there. Proponents of the hypothesis of the Anatolian original home and the migration of Proto-Indo-Europeans to the west (Europe) and to the east (Iranian highlands and later India) consider the Balkan region to be the cradle of the Proto-Indo-European basic language. The Indo-Europeans immigrating there would either have displaced the local hunters and gatherers, or they would have quickly assimilated to Indo-European culture and language. The cultural and linguistic Indo-Europeanization of Europe started from the Balkans. From there, the Indo-Europeans migrated to other parts of the continent and spread agriculture and their languages ​​to the west, north and east. Of the ancient Anatolian languages, Hittite and Luwian are the oldest outliers of Proto-Indo-European, and archaic elements have been preserved in their grammatical structures (also Gray / Atkinson 2003). However, certain facts do not fit into this coherent scenario, both with regard to the chronology and with regard to the linguistic and cultural contacts between the pre-Indo-European population and the Indo-Europeans. - The vocabulary of the historically transmitted Indo-European languages ​​of Southeast Europe (e.g. ancient Greek) contains loanwords from pre-Indo-European languages ​​(Strunk 2003: 86 f.). Many of these substrate words are special expressions in technological areas such as agriculture and horticulture, textile production and weaving technology, ceramic production, metal processing, house building (Haarmann 2003a: 37 ff.). The existence of such a technical vocabulary of pre-Indo-European origin in the ancient tradition of Greek does not agree with the view that the Indo-Europeans brought agriculture to Europe. After all, it would be expected that the entire terminology of crop production (as well as specialized craft areas) in Greek would be of purely Indo-European origin. - The historically transmitted Indo-European languages ​​of Anatolia (Hittite, Luwian, Palaic, Lydian, Lycian etc.) and the Balkan region (Greek, Illyrian, Thracian etc.) show both ancient phenomena and innovations in grammatical structure and in the lexicon (Mallory / Adams 1997: 640). If these languages ​​had been separated from the local Proto-Indo-European continuum, one would expect the preservation of far more archaic properties in their structures. - The composition of the ancient Greek pantheon of gods and the names of the female deities in particular do not fit the typical tradition of Indo-European mythology, but they do fit the goddess cult of the pre-Indo-European population. The figures of goddesses like Demeter, Cybele-Artemis, Hestia, Athene and Aphrodite are all pre-Greek, as are the functions they fulfill for humans (Haarmann 1996a). The dominance of a female deity, von Bendis, as the main goddess among the Thracians, as well as the variety of local goddess cults among the Illyrians (Ansotica in Liburnia, Ica and Iria in Flanona, Iutossica in Alvona, Latra in Nedinum) demonstrate the continuity. Indo-European traditions (Wilkes 1992: 245 ff.). If Indo-Europeans had settled in Anatolia and the Balkans from the beginning, a dominance of male deities could be expected in the mythological tradition of the Greeks and other ancient peoples. - Those who are looking for the original home of the Indo-Europeans in Anatolia cannot explain the ancient cultural and linguistic contacts between Indo-Europeans and Uralis in the Volga region (west of the Urals). The early Indo-European-Ural contacts go back to the Mesolithic period. According to this, Indo-Europeans must already in the 7th millennium BC BC who lived in the Volga region cannot have emigrated from Anatolia at that time (see Chapter 7). - The genes of the Europeans are only influenced to a small extent by the genes of the early arable farmers. Their gene structures are largely rooted in the gene pool of the indigenous hunters and gatherers who populated Europe before the spread of agriculture (Sykes 2001: 165 f.). The above contradictions are resolved if one approaches the explanations of the original home of the Indo-Europeans in a completely different way and thus looks at the situation in the Balkans in a completely different light. The following hypothesis has been discussed for some time: The long-established, pre-Indo-European population in south-eastern Europe made a change of its own accord from predatoryism to sedentarism, but at the same time preserved their languages. The people who acculturated were not (yet) under the influence of Indo-European language culture. Knowledge of arable farming came to this region as a transfer of ideas through trade contacts. The idea was taken up and successfully experimented with it (see Budja 2001: 28 ff. On hypotheses about migration, colonization and acculturation). Even if there are no traces of extensive migration from West Asia to Southeast Europe for the Neolithic and the pre-Indo-European language world remained essentially intact until the beginning of the Bronze Age, the question remains whether there were not small-scale migrations. The only region where immigration from outside is to be expected is the plain of Thessaly. The people there in the 7th millennium BC Settlements (Sesklo, Achilleion, Larissa, and others) that emerged in BC were very likely founded by arable farmers who had come over from the east coast of the Aegean Sea (Whittle 1996: 49 ff.). Between the Caspian Sea, Volga and Don? One of the most elementary contradictions in connection with the search for the Indo-European original home in the Balkans is associated with the most important symbol of cultural identification of Indo-Europeanism, the horse. Its domestication began in the 6th millennium BC. In the southern Russian steppe landscape, where the oldest small sculpture depicting horses was found (around 5000 BC in the region of Samara on the central Volga). The horse is archaeologically only after 2000 BC. In Southeastern Europe, as well as horse-drawn chariots. The horse as a cultural symbol of the Indo-Europeans and as a farm animal (for carrying loads, as a riding animal, as a draft animal of wagons) belongs to the Proto-Indo-European period, because a common root word has been preserved for it in the individual languages. This also applies to the terminology of the cart with wheels. A few examples may illustrate the distribution of these elements of the Indo-European vocabulary (according to Mallory / Adams 1997: 273 f., 625, 640): 159 - Basic term ‹horse›: proto-Indo-European * hekuos> altind. ásva-, altpers. asa-, poor. it, lithuania. asvíenis 'stallion', ancient Greek. hippos, Latin. equus, altir. ech, got. aíhva- (tundi) ‹Brombeere› (lit. ‹horse thorn›), old English eoh, tochar. B yakwe etc. - basic terms ‹wagen› and ‹vehicle, cart› (as well as derivatives): proto-Indo-European * ueghnos / * uoghnos / * uoghos ‹wagen›> altind. vahítram, ancient Greek. (f) óchos, old church slav. vozu, altir. fen, old north. vagn, oldgl. wægn, old high dt. wagan etc. - basic term ‹wheel›: proto-Indo-European * kwekwlóm / * kwokwlos>