What are the first signs of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus (sugar disease)

First signs

In the event of the following alarm signals, you must immediately consult a doctor with your child, there is a risk of a diabetic coma:

  • Increased susceptibility to infectious diseases
  • Great, persistent thirst, resulting in a hydration of several liters per day
  • Weight loss despite cravings and increased food intake (only occurs with type 1 diabetes)
  • Increased need to urinate with large amounts of urine, the children wake up from it at night or wet themselves.
  • Fatigue, mood swings, quick irritation
  • Decrease in physical and mental concentration, states of exhaustion (in type 1 diabetes)
  • stomach pain
  • Visual disturbances
  • Dry skin

Acute complications

A sudden derailment of the metabolism (diabetic ketoacidosis) as a result of a sharply increased blood sugar level (hyperglycaemia) is noticeable in addition to the first signs of non-specific symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain and dehydration of the body.

The next stage is deep, compulsive breathing and a smell of acetone in the air and urine. This is followed by disorders of consciousness up to a diabetic coma (coma diabeticum, sugar coma). This development can occur within a few hours, especially in small children. Diabetic ketoacidosis is primarily known in type 1 diabetes.

In 0.3 to 1.0% of all cases it leads to life-threatening brain edema, i.e. swelling of the brain.

An acute complication of insulin therapy is low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia). It is caused by excessive doses of insulin, reduced food intake, vomiting or excessive physical exertion. It manifests itself as paleness, shaky knees, palpitations, cravings and a furry feeling in the mouth. If left untreated, seizures or loss of consciousness may occur. Whether long-lasting, severe attacks of hypoglycaemia damage the brain has so far been scientifically controversial.