Why do hypertensive patients become overweight

Blood pressure crisis and hypertensive emergency

In such cases one speaks of a "hypertensive crisis" (high blood pressure crisis), which must be treated immediately. Otherwise there is a risk of severe organ damage such as heart attack, kidney failure or stroke.

Blood pressure crisis

From blood pressure values ​​of around 180/120 mmHg at which no acute organ damage is detected at the same time, one speaks of a "blood pressure crisis". This crisis can be treated with the help of antihypertensive drugs.

It usually affects patients who are already known to have high blood pressure or for whom the current treatment has not yet been optimized. Risk factors such as obesity, coronary heart disease, irregular medical check-ups or changes in blood-lowering therapy favor a hypertensive crisis. Withdrawal from blood pressure tablets (antihypertensive medication), excessive alcohol consumption (including withdrawal) or anabolic steroids are possible triggers of a blood pressure crisis.

Hypertensive emergency

From blood pressure values ​​of around 230/130 mmHg or an impending or already existing damage to organs such as the heart, brain or kidneys, one speaks of a "hypertensive emergency". This type of high blood pressure crisis can be life threatening.

Development of a high blood pressure crisis

There are several mechanisms that promote the development of a "hypertensive crisis" (high blood pressure crisis), and yet their development is unclear. Above all, the disturbance of the endothelial function (inner vessel wall lining), an excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and also inflammatory vascular changes have been observed as levers for a high blood pressure crisis.

Effects of hypertension crises

Due to modern antihypertensive drugs, mortality from hypertensive crises has decreased significantly.

However, European data still show an approximately 4% mortality rate within 30 days in patients who were hospitalized for a hypertensive crisis and treated with intravenous medication. Patients who have survived a hypertensive crisis have a 29% chance of getting another hypertensive crisis within 90 days, which leads to hospitalization.

The main complications of a hypertensive crisis are acute stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, acute kidney failure, acute retinal problems, decompensated heart failure, pulmonary edema, heart attack or even aortic dissection (tear in the inner vascular wall of the main artery).

Therapy of hypertensive emergency

If there is already end organ damage, it is essential to treat it and to minimize the imminent danger to life. After an initial decrease in blood pressure, an attempt is made to slowly return the blood pressure to normal blood pressure values ​​(140 mmHg) over a period of 24 - 48 hours.

Hypertensive crisis - don't waste any time

Hypertensive crises are common reasons for treatment in emergency rooms or hospitals. A hypertensive emergency with accompanying end organ damage must be treated as quickly as possible.

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