Can I legally own an M109 howitzer?

# S T #

88.015

Message on the procurement of armaments material (armament program

1988)

dated February 24, 1988

Dear Presidents, Ladies and Gentlemen, we

submit

You the draft with this message

a federal decree

to

on the procurement of armaments

rial (armaments program 1988) with the application for approval.

We assure you, dear Presidents, dear ladies and gentlemen, of our utmost respect.

February 24, 1988

On behalf of the Swiss Federal Council The Federal President: Stich The Round Chancellor: Buser

1988-126

13

overview With this armaments program, the Federal Council is continuing its efforts to adapt our army to the requirements of modern national defense.

The following material is requested for procurement: Project

Credit million CHF

Credit million CHF

Genius and Fortresses - Anti-tank Mines 88

342,0

342,0

Mechanized and light troops - combat value upgrade of 195 tanks 68

472,0

472,0

Artillery - material for the formation of six self-propelled howitzer compartments - 15.5 cm canister ammunition - P-763 direction finding equipment for the artillery weather service

315,0 280,0 45,0

640,0

223,0

223,0

Management and transmission - Modernization of the directional beam height network of the army Aircraft and anti-aircraft troops - Combat value enhancement of the Sidewinder air-to-air guided weapons - Infrared reconnaissance systems for the Mirage III RS aircraft - Supplementary material for the creation of an additional Rapier battery ...

  • 20 mm armored core flame ammunition Motorization - all-terrain

Passenger car Puch G ...

Total armaments program 1988

14

140,0 , 27,0 38,0 95,0

300,0

218,0

218,0 2195,0

EMBASSY

I.

General

II

Army mission statement and expansion step 1988-1991

The army mission statement is the long-term frame of reference for the future design of the army. It is not limited in time, but generally includes several legislative periods.

The expansion step 1988-1991 is the logical continuation of the expansion step 1984-1987. It describes the entirety of the goals and framework conditions required for this during the current legislative period.

The balance of funds striven for as part of the defense can only be achieved in the long term through several expansion steps. In the individual expansion step, priorities must therefore be set based on the military needs.

The 1988 armaments program initiated the expansion step from 1988 to 1991.

  • With the procurement of additional self-propelled howitzers and modern canister ammunition as well as direction finding equipment for the artillery weather service, the firepower, mobility and protection of the artillery are significantly improved.
  • Due to the increase in combat value of 195 Panzer 68, which mainly includes the installation of a modern fire control system, the dueling ability of the counter-attack devices of the field divisions is decisively improved.
  • With the acquisition of new anti-tank mines, the static component of the defense is strengthened.
  • The modernization of the directional beam height network represents an important step towards the expansion of a nationwide, high-performance transmission network.
  • The plans of the air and anti-aircraft troops bring an improvement in the ammunition equipment, expand the

15

Enlightenment possibilities and round off the already completed rapier procurement.

the

procurement

newer

Terrain cars

becomes

the

possible replacement of obsolete and uneconomical vehicles possible.

12

Distribution of orders

121

Calculation scheme

The

below

numbers

lies

the following

Calculation scheme

based on: Procurement credit, foreign share, indirect participation, domestic share, utility companies, private industry

Employment-effective in Switzerland

German Switzerland Western Switzerland Southern Switzerland

122

Domestic and foreign share, indirect participation and employment effectiveness in Switzerland

The domestic share of the material requested with this embassy is 1 1 4 3 million francs (52%). This corresponds to an employment of around 7,700 man-years.

The foreign share is mainly attributable to the Federal Republic

Germany,

in France, Great Britain,

Israel,

Austria and the United States.

By

indirect participation by the Swiss

procurement

cal economy further

16

Industry at the

of foreign material is the

Swiss

Orders in the form of compensation

stores received. Their magnitude is 665 francs. The employment effectiveness of the proposed projects is increased (around 12,000 man-years).

For the picture:

individual

Armaments project results

project

  • Combat value increase of 195 Panzer 68 - material for 6 self-propelled howitzer 15.5 cm canister ammunition
  • Supplementary material for the formation of an additional rapier battery - 20-mm armored core flame ammunition.
  • All-terrain passenger car Puch G Total

Indirect participation

%

Million CHF

%

74

0

0

308

65

55

12

87 72

28 26

139 170

44 61

100

0

0

100

0

0

16

90

64

15

0

0

0 95

0 100

33 0

87

33

15

178

82

52,

665

30

-->

1 143

52

...

1 808

82

1143

l in the Swed

the following

253

  • P-763 direction finding equipment for artillery weather service. . . 45 - Modernization of the directional beam height network of the Army 223 - Increase in combat value of the Sidewinder air-to-air guided missiles ...

23 - Infrared reconnaissance systems for Mirage III RS aircraft ...

4

Employment-effective

yourself

Domestic production

Million CHF

Million

the one with this to 82 percent

0

With the direct participation, i.e. the license production and the final assembly of material developed abroad in Switzerland, the following additional or reduced costs are associated:

17

Million. Fr.

(round)

7 - Combat value increase of 195 tanks 68

...

25

...

7 13

  • Increase in combat value of the Sidewinder air-to-air guided missiles (see section 251.34)

-

3

  • Infrared reconnaissance systems for the aircraft Mi rage III RS

.. .

0 0

Total

.. .

49

123

Distribution of domestic production

Of the domestic share, 65 percent is accounted for by private industry and 35 percent by federal armaments companies.

Latter

experience shows about

the half

des to you

of the order volume placed with private Swiss companies.

This accounts for 65 percent of the 65 percent share of private industry

around 43 percent in German-speaking Switzerland, around 21 pro

center on western Switzerland and just under Switzerland.

These

numbers

1 percent on that

south

are based on information provided by the suppliers,

but also on experience with previous orders

as well as on

Information about the industrial potential in the different regions. Larger orders are usually given to general contractors

forgive; this

will be as broad as possible

regional distribution of subcontracts made mandatory. The figures mentioned only take into account the award of orders to subcontractors to the extent that this could be recorded at the time the message was written. The further allocation to suppliers could no longer be taken into account. For certain

Material takes place

the

definitive

Procurement

due to a competition that has yet to be carried out. The payment

18

Changes can therefore still be made to the regional distribution. Further information on the regional distribution of orders can be found in the following descriptions of the procurement applications.

On the basis of the instructions of the Federal Council on the regional political coordination of federal activities of November 26, 1986, the relevant contacts were made with the Central Office for Regional Economic Development in the Federal Office for Industry, Commerce and Labor.

When awarding the contract, regional political aspects will be taken into account whenever possible. In this context, it is worth mentioning that the federal government has been assuming the transport costs for the armaments for a number of years. Remote suppliers are therefore not disadvantaged in this regard.

19

2

Procurement project

21

Genius and fortresses (CHF 342.0 million)

211

Anti-tank mines 88

211.1

Military aspects

211.11

Military justification

Main battle tanks and armored escort vehicles in large numbers characterize the modern battlefield. Their constantly improved armor and their greater mobility make it more and more difficult to achieve sufficiently efficient anti-tank fire in the short combat times available.

Anti-tank mines fulfill an important task in this environment by channeling tank units, decelerating them decisively or stopping them if necessary.

However, through the widespread use of mine clearance equipment, an attacker is able to drastically reduce the value of conventional mines. Great efforts are therefore being made worldwide to develop anti-tank mines of the so-called second generation, which have the following properties: - Resistant to de-mining equipment; - Effective across the entire width of the tank, i.e. the mine is triggered even if the tank does not run over it with one of its caterpillars; - less effort in laying; - Great destructive effect on the underside of the tank, which for reasons of weight can hardly be effectively protected.

Our anti-tank mines were procured in the 1950s and 1960s. They have to be replaced due to aging. With the acquisition of a second generation anti-tank mine, mine fighting can once again fulfill its intended role.

20

To close

of mine lanes, for rapid mine locks and

for emergency mines is intended as a supplement to the anti-tank mines applied for

88 later

one too

eviction-resistant,

effective and inexpensive mine can be procured.

211.12

Judgment by the troops

In the spring and summer of 1987, detailed troop tests were carried out. The anti-tank mine 88 proved to be easy to use. Performance and functional reliability are the same as

the military requirements.

Test results

could

the

Anti-tank mine

Due to 88

as

be declared fit for troops.

211.13

Integration with the troops

The anti-tank mine 88 will replace the cluster mine 49 and partly also the anti-tank mine 60 for the combat troops and engineering troops for the formation of minefields.

211.14

Retraining and training

The introduction of anti-tank mine 88 does not involve any additional training and can take place in the usual time frame for training on mines.

The

Teaching material necessary for the training, such as

Manipulation and marking leads are also requested for procurement as part of this setup program.

211.2 211.21

Technical aspects Description

The anti-tank mine 88 consists of two main elements, an electronic sensor detonator and an explosive charge.

21

Technical data of the dimensions:

Anti-tank mine 8jj,

:

height

105 mm

width

190mm

length

280 mm

Total mass

7.5 kg

Mass of explosives

3 kg

The anti-tank mine vehicles

and

88 is driven over by Kampï-

armored

Light metal, as well

Wheeled vehicles,

by light

also

vehicles

Vehicle width triggered. The electronic

such

on the

out

whole

Sensor igniter

works the received signals and causes the charge to explode. The bottom and under the armored hull

detonating mine

beats

the

does great damage inside

Tank

what causes the failure of the vehicle. A

Reconditioning on the battlefield excluded. When the tank

is in this case

with the caterpillar on the mine

drives, the caterpillar is detonated

22

of

torn.

In armored wheeled vehicles with more than four wheels, the loss of a wheel does not lead to any significant loss of mobility. For this reason, the electronic detonator is programmed in such a way that the mine in such vehicles is only triggered in the area of ​​the underside of the vehicle and not when the wheels are driven over it.

In order to achieve the same blocking effect as with the anti-tank mines introduced, only around a third of anti-tank mines 88 are necessary, as these respond across the entire width of the vehicle. The storage and transport requirements as well as the laying times are reduced as a result.

Anti-tank mine 88: Triggered across the full width of the vehicle

0.5m

Previous mine: Triggered only at the width of a caterpillar. Five anti-tank mines 88 are stored in a wooden box, ready to be laid. The fuse only needs to be unlocked before laying.

The anti-tank mine 88 is being relocated manually. It is technically designed in such a way that it could also be used with any mechanical installation devices if they were to be purchased at a later date.

«The detonator logic shows a high level of resistance to detonative and mechanical clearing agents. The detonator's electronics also resist the electromagnetic pulse that passes through

23

causing an A-explosion with a high blast point. When attempting to manually remove the mine, it detonates.

After a certain period of time, the mine neutralizes itself. After that, it can be made usable again by the troops with a reactivation kit consisting of three easily interchangeable components.

It is estimated that the mine will last for 10 to 15 years before it can be overhauled. No maintenance work is necessary during this time.

211.22

Evaluation

In view of the large number of mine types that were available on the market, no in-house development was carried out. In the years 1981-1983 a technical pre-evaluation of the following six foreign products was carried out: - English mine Barmine; - Misar's SB-MV Italian mine; - German mine PAM 3 from Dynamit Nobel AG; - Swedish mine FFV 028 from Förenade Fabriksverken (FFV); - French mines HPD F1 and HPD F2 from Télécommunications Radioélectriques et Téléphoniques (TRT).

The main evaluation of the two products FFV 028 (Sweden) and HPD F2 (France) selected for extensive testing took place in the years 1985-1987. The Austrian tank mine 85 E, which has meanwhile been offered, was also included in the tests. For military and technical reasons, the product from the company TRT was chosen.

24

211.3

procurement

211.31

Procurement credit

The procurement credit is structured as follows:

Million CHF

-

Anti-tank mines 88 Manufacturing devices Reactivation kits Test and repair equipment

253,0 5,0 21,6 1,0

  • Teaching material, including anti-tampering and marking anti-tank mines, as well as models and training tables

10,0

  • Estimated inflation up to delivery - risk (around 3%)

41,5 9,9

Total

211.32

342,0

Procurement organization, offers and contracts

The procurement of anti-tank mines 88 takes place within the line organization of the armaments service group. The contract partner and general contractor is Télécommunications Radioélectriques et Téléphoniques (TRT), Paris. The armaments services group has signed an option contract with her. Deliveries are made from 1991 to the end of 1994.

211.33

Domestic share and participation of Swiss industry

The domestic share of this procurement is around 74 percent. Around 70 percent of this is accounted for by private industry and the remaining 30 percent by federal armaments companies.

25

TRT has undertaken to take responsibility for Tavaro S.A. in Geneva with the manufacture of part of the electronic sensor detonator and the Federal Ammunition Factory in Altdorf with the manufacture of the explosive charge and the final assembly of the mine.

The order to the company Tavaro S.A. becomes employable in their company in Sion; this means that 30 people can be employed there for around five years.

The participation of Swiss industry entails additional costs of 7.3 million francs, which corresponds to around 2. percent of the procurement credit applied for.

:

211.4

Risk assessment

The TRT company has extensive experience in the development and manufacture of anti-tank mines. She has already delivered such mines to various armies. Norway and Belgium have already ordered the mine type applied for here; an order from the French army is expected. Since TRT also assumes overall responsibility despite the high proportion of Swiss production, the technical and commercial

Risks

as small

assess

Splits.

211.5

Follow-up costs and buildings

As mentioned in section 211.21, less space is required to store the anti-tank mine 88. The space previously used for the storage of anti-tank mines is, however, partly no longer usable in the future for reasons of safety, structural condition and manageability. It is therefore mine type

-

independent of

the

procurement

one

new

  • necessary to get new munitions in different places

to create storage space in the order of 6 million francs. The smaller space requirement of the new mine is there-

26

when taken into account. The loans will be applied for in future building embassies.

22

Mechanized and Light Troops (CHF 472 million)

221

Combat value increase of 195 tanks 68

221.1

introduction

Our army has 390 Panzer 68, which were procured in four series as follows: Procurement program - Armaments program 1968 I - Armaments program 1974

Number 170 tanks 68 50 tanks 68

  • 1975 Armaments Program - 1978 Armaments Program

110 tanks 68/75 60 tanks 68/75

Delivery 1971-1 * 974 1977-1978 1978-1979 1983-1984

The tanks of the third and fourth series are equipped with a larger turret; these are called Panzer 68/75.

In the period from mid-1979 to the end of 1984, the entire Panzer 68 fleet went through a remedial program. This could be completed to the satisfaction of the troops and the maintenance offices.The Panzer 68 meets the expectations placed on it today. Its reliability was significantly increased between 1980 and 1983 and has been maintained at this level to this day.

In the report of the Military Commission of the National Council of 17

September 1979 about the deficiencies in the Panzer 68, the EMD is recommended, among other things, to increase the combat value of the Panzer 68 as quickly as. possible to include in an armaments program (BBl 1979 II 1516).

Development in autumn

1979 headed

the group

a fire control system

for armaments services

the

and various improvements

27

to protect the tank crew. This project was originally planned for the 1986 armaments program, but had to be postponed as a result of the accelerated procurement of Panzer 87 Leopard, i.e. for financial reasons.

The requested procurement includes the combat value increase of 195 Panzer 68, which are to continue to be used as counter-attack tanks. This affects the 170 tanks from the third and fourth series, as well as 25 tanks from the second series, which are also retrofitted with a large turret. The upgraded Panzer 68 was given the new designation Panzer 68/88.

221.2

Military aspects

221.21

Use of the tank units in the nineties

The operational concept of our mechanized units also provides for three different types of tank battalions in the future, which are integrated into the army as follows:

28

  • three mechanized divisions:. four counter-strike units each (tank battalions type A); - six field divisions:. one counterstrike unit each (tank battalion type B); . one anti-tank unit each (tank battalion type C).

The task of a counterattack association

is to have a

to destroy mechanized opponents or airborne troops that have entered the defense system. Added to this is the fire superiority

especially

the

First shot hit probability

ability to be of vital importance.

The task of the anti-tank association consists in the use of tanks as mobile anti-tank means in defense arrangements, provided that the

Firing range

the tank

exploited

and there is enough room to move around.

The fire is opened like a raid from prepared positions.

As a result of the introduction of Panzer 87 Leopard in the three mechanized divisions, Panzer 68 and Panzer 61 were assigned to the field divisions in accordance with the Aenderurig of the Troop Order of May 28, 1986 (BBl 1986 II 1109). Die, Panzer Centurion

should

part

to be liquidated, in part

become

your

Towers bunkered in anti-tank barriers and reused.

The Panzer 61 achieved an average lifespan of 30 years in the mid-1990s. Since its introduction, partial revisions have been carried out on individual assemblies, but no major renewal programs. The at

Pan

zer 61 lack of a stabilizer precluded any major increases in combat value from the outset. Because of its limited scope of use, the Panzer 61 was withdrawn from the mechanized units after 1995. The question of its possible further use

is still open. The tank battalions

and Type C have Panzer 68 in the field divisions.

Type B

are therefore only from 1995

With the withdrawal of Panzer 61 from the mechanized groups, the tank companies also became

the

Ver

Tank battalions

Types B and C each have ten tanks. There-

29

all tank battalions in the army have the same number of tanks at their disposal. These changes will have to be taken into account in one of the upcoming revisions of the troop order.

After the procurement of the Panzer 87 Leopard and the conversion of the Panzer 68 into upgraded Panzer 68/88, the Swiss Army will have the following tank units from 1995: the mechanized divisions; -, six, type B tank battalions, equipped with tanks 68/88, as counter-strike units in the field divisions; - Six type C tank battalions, equipped with tanks 68, as a mobile anti-tank element in the field divisions.

In total, in addition to the 180 tanks 68/88 (six tank battalions type B with 30 tanks each) and the 180 tanks 68 (six tank battalions: type C with 30 tanks each), 15 tanks each are provided as reserves. This means that today's 390 Panzer 68 are divided into a fleet of 195 Panzer 68/88 and 195 Panzer 68.

221.22

Military justification

The combat value of Panzer 68 in the Type B tank battalions must be increased so that they will do justice to the expected threat and intended use in the nineties. Panzer 68 of the Type B tank battalions should be able to take up combat against stationary and moving targets primarily from a short fire stop, but also secondarily from movement. In addition, an improved survivability for the tank crew is required. These goals should be achieved through the installation of a fire control system, which provides a higher first shot hit probability with a short reaction time, as well as through the implementation of survival measures

For

An essential one

improvement

the

Tank crew

reached

obtained through the procurement of arrow ammunition.

30

become.

the firepower was already on

With regard to the use of the Panzer 68 fleet beyond the year 2000, combat value preservation measures are also required for all Panzer 68 as part of the change service; intended. Their costs are not directly related to the procurement requested here; they would arise in any case if the Panzer 68 fleet were to continue to be used for a longer period of time. It is financed in installments from the annual budget for personal equipment and renewal needs.

221.23

Judgment by the troops

The upgraded Panzer 68 was extensively tested in various troop trials in 1985 and 1987. These tests have shown that the Panzer 68/88 meets the requirements of the military specification.

221.24

introduction

The operational readiness of the first type B tank battalion with upgraded tanks 68/88 is planned for the end of 1992. The remaining battalions followed by the end of 1994.

221.3

Technical aspects

221.31

Fire control system

The fire control system for the Panzer 68 consists of the following main components: - Self-stabilized judge target device with a view for the commander; - Fire control computer

With

integrated

Test

and

Troubleshooting

system; - Spinning packages for gun and turret; - modified weapon alignment and stabilization system; - Redesigned service stations for judges and commanders.

31

The system gives the Panzer 68 a high first-shot hit probability from the short fire stop and from the journey up to the maximum operating distance. The short reaction time significantly increases the tank's ability to duel. The tests have shown that the upgraded Panzer 68 can withstand comparison with modern battle tanks in terms of hit probability and reaction time.

221.311

Evaluation

The evaluation was carried out in two phases. The pre-evaluation ended at the beginning of 1981 with the reduction of possible providers to the companies Honeywell (Germany) and Hughes (USA).

The development of prototypes in competition with both companies was not possible for financial and capacity reasons. The decision for the most suitable project therefore had to be made on the basis of the company's documents. After considering military, technical, commercial and economic-political aspects, the choice fell on the Honeywell project.

This decision was also made by the fact

influences,

That the Honeywell company, as the developer of the weapon alignment and stabilization system of Panzer 68 at the time, already had the tank-specific system knowledge required for the integration of the fire control system.

221.312

Course of development

The development initiated in April 1982 was coordinated by the general contractor, the Eidgenössische Konstruktionswerkstätte Thun, with the entire Kampf value enhancement program. The factory trials, technical trials and troop trials carried out between 1983 and 1985 gave positive results. The prototype vehicles achieved the required high first-shot hit probabilities from stationary and while driving, as well as the short reaction times. That one-

32

If weak points were identified, "further development and risk reduction" were eliminated in a phase that lasted from 1985-1987. At the same time, operation and maintenance have been improved.

221.313

Alternatives

The type decision in favor of the Honeywell fire control system was checked for its suitability during the development phase. After the type selection made in the autumn of 1983 in favor of the Panzer 87 Leopard, it was clarified whether its entire fire control system could possibly also be installed in the Panzer 68. The technical clarifications showed that the installation of a completely identical system is not possible. Due to time and financial considerations and to avoid additional risks, this alternative was not pursued. However, the two systems have individual identical components.

2 Federal Gazette. 140th year. Vol. II

33

221.32

Other measures

In addition to the fire control system

includes the combat value enhancement

program still the following measures: Measures

Effects

  1. Fire suppression system

Instant suppression of explosive fuel or hydraulic oil fires inside the tank

2. Commander's cupola

Improved protection of commanders from fragments and the effects of small-caliber weapons without impairing observation conditions

3. Surface protection including stain camouflage

Better camouflage and increased resistance to chemical warfare agents

4. 7,6 cm fog thrower 87

Faster fogging of the standing bandage

5. Installation of a diesel heater instead of the current electric heating system

Ensuring the energy requirements of the fire control system while at the same time guaranteeing the heating operation

6. Replacing the steel fuel tanks with plastic tanks

Less susceptibility to leakage, better aging behavior, lower weight

7. 25 large towers

Uniform logistics and simplification of management

34

221.4

procurement

221.41

Procurement scope and credit

The scope of procurement and the procurement credit are made up as follows: CHF million.

Realization of the combat value enhancement program on 195 tanks 68 preliminary phase (serial production, preparation for production, preliminary series) manufacture and integration of subsequent assemblies including acceptance. Fire control systems. Fire suppression systems. Commanders' cupolas. Surface protection, including stain camouflage. 7.6 cm Nebelwerfer 87 including ammunition. Plastic tanks. Diesel heaters. 25 large towers of peripheral material. Spare Parts . Repair and testing equipment. Teaching material. Documentation. Training courses

Million Fr.

36,9 255,9

292,8 29,8 31,4 31,9 4,4 1 ,7

99,2

estimated inflation until delivery ..

60,0

Risk (around 4%)

20,0

Total

472,0

The procurement credit includes 60 million francs for the estimated inflation and 20 million francs for the risk. The remaining 392 million is accounted for 75 percent by tanks (292.8 million Swiss francs) and 25 percent by peripheral equipment (99.2 million Swiss francs).

35

The tank costs are broken down as follows: - The 36.9 million Swiss francs for the preliminary phase are required for the completion of the already initiated series production and the

Production preparation,

For the production of

four pre-series vehicles (see section 221.42) as well as for their subsequent adaptation to the status of the series vehicles.

  • In addition to the assembly and installation costs, the 255.9 million paws for the production of the assemblies and their integration into the tanks as well as for the acceptance include:

. the cost of the smoke launcher ammunition required; . Compensation for quality assurance and project management; . the costs for one during the entire manufacturing and integration phase in the federal workshop

inserted

Construction

Plant support team

the

company

Honeywell, the developer of the fire control system; . the costs

for the ammunition which

at the acceptance

shooting and the shooting procedure is required; . the additional effort for the implementation of the license production of the fire control system and the fire suppression system.

Around a quarter of the CHF 99.2 million for peripheral material is earmarked for adjustments

at

existing

Material and the remaining three quarters for new purchases.

In terms of spare parts, the proportion of new material to be procured is CHF 22.5 million. Its dimensioning was based on the same tried and tested criteria as the Panzer 87 Leopard.

In the case of repair and testing equipment, the proportion of modification costs is relatively high at CHF 16.5 million. These are mainly devices that were procured as part of the Panzer 87 Leopard project and have now also been adapted for the tank

68/88 can be used

should.

The remaining CHF 14.9 million will be used to purchase new test equipment and special tools

for the fire control system

ge. This material complements the equipment of the repair units.

36

Of the 31.9 million francs for the teaching material, the portion for adjustments is 2.9 million francs. With the exception of the Elsap electronic shooting range (cf.

221.64) and the tactical shooting simulator SIM 74, the existing teaching materials can continue to be used in their current form. In addition to a few smaller training aids, three major new acquisitions are planned: - The previous tactical shooting simulator SIM 74 cannot be brought up to the level required for use on a tank with a fire control system due to its different functionality.

As a new tactical shooting simulator, the same type as the Panzer 87 Leopard is to be procured.

In addition to the actual 55 simulators, the scope of procurement includes 81 installation equipment (including 26 installation equipment for the use of existing simulators), 30 commanders' monitors, 9 referee equipment, 30 target equipment and a proportion of spare parts.

  • In addition, five simulators will be procured for judge training.
  • The deployment of three new fault localization and repair trainers is planned for the training of the troop craftsmen. In this way, on the one hand, a high level of training for the maintenance organs can be achieved and, on the other hand, the costly training effort on the battle tank can be reduced.

The last two positions in the embassy, ​​the documentation and the training courses, cost a total of 6.1 million Swiss francs. These services are primarily intended for the various maintenance points that have to look after the fire control system.

22l.42

Pre-series

All new assemblies, especially the fire control system, are developments that are only available today in the form of tried and tested prototypes. Experience has shown that the transfer of the development product to the initial production involves risks. To reduce the mentioned risks is

37

planned to produce a pilot series of four vehicles, which will be subjected to verification at the end of 1990.

221.43

Procurement timing

The 195 upgraded tanks 68/88 for the type B tank battalions are to be delivered from the beginning of 1992 to the end of 1994. After production has started up, six to eight vehicles are converted every month. The teaching material is brought forward, the maintenance and replacement material is delivered together with the tanks.

The cadre schools, recruiting schools and retraining courses of the troops are to be carried out in the years 1992-1994.

PHASES

1989 1990

Series production and preparation for production

\ N

Assembly and verification of the pre-series tanks

\\\\

Manufacture and assembly of the series - tanks

\\\\

Delivery of the tanks. Re-training of the troops. Operational readiness of the tank battalions

221.44

1991

1992

\ N X \ V \

1993

s \

\\\ ^

1994

\ X \ V

K5 \ V. \ N ir T T ^ r T T

Procurement organization, contract structure

The processing of the combat value enhancement program takes place at the EMD level within the framework of a project management, which simultaneously exercises the project supervision. The real one

Procurement

The armaments services group is responsible for this. she has a

38

Project management created with the technical, commercial and quality assurance departments.

The Eidgenössische Konstruktionswerkstätte Thun, with which the armaments services group signed an option contract, was designated as the general contractor for the entire combat value enhancement program. She wears that

System Responsible

tion. The two most important business partner workshops are:

the construct

  • Honeywell, Maintal, Federal Republic of Germany, which developed the fire control system; - Contraves AG, Zurich, which produces the fire control system under license.

In addition, the Federal Construction Workshop will involve a number of other Swiss rants in the project.

Companies

221.45

Domestic share and participation of Swiss industry

221.451

Overview

as

Tuna

Underflow

The domestic share is around 65 percent. This share was achieved by considering domestically developed products and solutions as well as through license manufacturing.

Measure

developer

Series manufacturer

Domestic share

Fire control system

Honeywell

Contraves / Wild

56 %

Fire suppression system

Deugra (FRG)

K + W

48 %

New commanders cupola

K + W

K + W

100 %

7.6 cm fog cannon

Wegmann (FRG)

W + F

76 %

39

The

by

the

License production in the

Switzerland

accruing

Additional costs amount to around 25 million francs or 5.3 percent of the total project costs.

For the portion of the fire control system, which is obtained directly from the Federal Republic of Germany, an economic compensation was also agreed.

,

221.452

License construction of the fire control system

Direct involvement The fire control system was developed by Honeywell, Federal Republic of Germany, on behalf of the Swiss construction workshop in Thun. The system has never been mass-produced, which takes into account the elaborated procurement model. In contrast to production under license, the two German companies Honeywell and Zeiss involved in the development work closely with the Swiss licensees Contraves Zurich and Wild Heerbrugg.

The license construction of the fire control system includes the parts that are also manufactured accordingly for the fire control system of the Panzer 87 Leopard in Switzerland. These are mainly optical components of the target device and electronic assemblies for the fire control computer.

Reasons for the decision:

in favor of the

License building

were

the following

Transfer of know-how to Switzerland; Utilization of existing resources from the license production of the tank 87 Leopard; Employment effectiveness.

Indirect participation The proportion of the scope of delivery that the Contraves company procures directly from the Federal Republic of Germany must be 100 percent economically viable through counter-deals

40

balanced

become. Contraves has signed a corresponding agreement with the Swiss Federal Design Workshop in Thun and

the

contained therein

Delivery

Tied up.

Obligations

The

volume

their

amounts

65

German millions

German mark.

221.5

Risk assessment

Increases in the combat value of older weapon systems are more risky than new purchases. In the case of the Panzer 68, the decisive risk factor is the current condition of the individual vehicles, in particular the parts that have been subject to wear and tear due to previous use.

All new assemblies are also developments that are currently only available in the form of well-tested prototypes.

Overall, the project harbors risks that are above the average of other projects ready for procurement. However, it is not possible with reasonable effort to further reduce this risk. This fact was with a general risk premium of. around 4 percent are taken into account. The technical maturity is given.

and commercial

221.6

Follow-up costs

221.61

Recurring material expenses

Procurement

Due to the procurement of spare parts and the maintenance, especially of the electronic and optronic assemblies of the fire control system, an estimated annual additional expenditure of 1.7 million Swiss francs can be expected.

41

221.62

staff

The parallel training on two different Panzer 68 types as well as the maintenance

the upgraded

Materials

require the following additional personnel: - three NCOs for schools and courses of the armored forces; - two instruction officers for schools and courses for the material troops; - eight employees for maintenance.

221.63 The

buildings

additional space required for training the

Troops-

craftsman at the fire control system is covered as part of the ongoing project for the expansion of the training systems for the material troops in Thun.

221.64

training

The retraining on the upgraded Panzer 68 takes place as part of two repetition courses of normal duration: a repetition course at the Thun arsenal for basic training and a shooting repetition course.

The electronic shooting range Elsap Panzer 68 is used for the training of the tower crews of the type C tank battalions

used. Around

the

commitment

this training facility

To ensure that it goes beyond 1990, it must be overhauled and partially renewed.

The one for the upgraded tanks 68/88 of the tank battalions

Type

B.

certain

second

existing

electronic

Elsap shooting range, Panzer 68/75 must either have the

increased

Training needs can be adapted or replaced by a new, more modern system. The question of adaptation or replacement is currently being clarified. The shooting range should be available to the troops from the first half of 1992.

42

The partial renewal and adaptation of the electronic shooting range Panzer 68 or its replacement is to be applied for with a later armaments program for procurement.

23

Artillery (CHF 640.0 million)

231

Material for the formation of six self-propelled howitzer departments (CHF 315.0 million)

231.1

introduction

With the present armaments program, the necessary material for the formation of a further six self-propelled howitzer departments is requested for procurement. This is intended to convert one of the two now existing heavy cannon divisions in each of the field divisions. The incorporation of a third self-propelled howitzer division will contribute significantly to increasing the firepower of the field divisions. The 10.5 cm cannons 35 that were released are to be liquidated. Gun parts that can still be used are used as replacement material for the cannons of this type that remain in service. The future of the remaining six heavy cannon divisions of the field divisions is being studied as part of the expansion planning for the artillery.

The requested procurement essentially comprises the following: - 108 self-propelled howitzers 88 (type M-109); - 54 caterpillar transport wagons 68 (M-548); - Conversion of 30 command tanks 63 (M - 113) into fire control tanks 63; - ammunition; - Peripheral material, such as replacement, maintenance and teaching material as well as conversion of existing vehicles into repair, replacement part and crane vehicles, power generation units.

43

i Panzerhaubitze 88 under item 232 of the present embassy, ​​the procurement of modern canister ammunition for both the existing and for the new self-propelled howitzer departments is applied for. In the course of a restructuring of the ammunition range, the further procurement of steel grenades and smoke incendiary grenades can be dispensed with. The lighting ammunition that remains unchanged in the ammunition range and the ammunition for the smoke launcher must be re-purchased for the additional self-propelled howitzers.

The 30 command tanks 63 and the radio equipment required for the conversion into fire control tanks will be taken from existing stocks by redistribution. The corps of the six cannon divisions

can

Mostly

For

the

Formation of

Self-propelled howitzer compartments are used.

The artillery now has 24 self-propelled howitzer departments. Their material was procured as part of the following earlier armaments programs:

44

Armaments program

Self-propelled howitzers (M-109)

Armored personnel carrier (M-113)

1968/1 1 ) 1974 2) 1979 3)

146 120 207

170 90 225

Crawler transport trolley (M-548)

68 160

  1. BBl 1968 I 461 2) BBl 1974 1 7 1 1 3) BBl 1979 I 685

By dispensing with the procurement of M-113 armored personnel carriers and 65 armored vehicles, as well as using the material from the heavy cannon departments that are to be dismantled, substantial cost savings can be achieved.

Training can be ensured by bringing forward and expanding the second "Auenfeld" expansion stage on the Frauenfeld arsenal (cf. Sections 231.24 and 231.6) and through organizational measures at the Bière, Monte Ceneri and Sitten arsenals.

231.2

Military aspects

231.21

Military justification

The artillery with its high firepower is the most important support weapon of our combat units. A modernly armed enemy nowadays has reconnaissance equipment that enables him to locate artillery positions quickly and precisely; Increased demands are therefore placed on the mobility of our artillery.

Some of the artillery in the field divisions is still equipped with rifled artillery. These associations must be buried in the firing position by time-consuming

protect.

The advance warning times, which are becoming shorter and shorter due to the improved reconnaissance results, mean that shelters have to be digged

and the

Create

of

Change positions

just

still

loading

45

restricts. In the event of fire, the changing position for crew and material is only possible without protection and takes a relatively large amount of time.

In the case of tank artillery, the significantly higher mobility and the effective fragmentation protection for crew, ammunition and equipment lead to significantly better self-protection. Armored and mechanized guns can leave the position immediately if they are hit and are ready within a short time to continue firing from a change position. For this reason alone, the combat value of tank artillery is much higher than that of rifled artillery. In addition, the weight of the 15.5 cm projectile is almost three times that of the 10.5 cm cannon; this significantly increases the effect on the target.

In the report on the expansion step 1988-1991 it is stated, among other things, that the consistent continuation of the procurement of conventional high-performance weapons, which enable the army to achieve high initial performance and have a dissuasive effect, will also be necessary and expedient in the future.

The self-propelled howitzer will be the backbone of our artillery well beyond the year 2000. Thanks to its caliber and possible increases in range and firepower (use of explosive ammunition with proximity fuses, canister ammunition and so-called "intelligent ammunition") it will also be suitable for carrying out artillery tasks in the future.

231.22

Judgment by the troops

The material in service today has proven itself and is mastered by the troops.

231.23

Integration with the troops

With the creation of another self-propelled howitzer department

46

In the future, each field division will have three similarly organized self-propelled howitzer divisions type B. The artillery regiment of a field division is structured as follows:

Artillery Regiment of the Field Divisions

3 self-propelled howitzer departments

^_ 1

| 1 The self-propelled howitzer departments

become from the

Team

the positions of the heavy cannon departments to be disbanded.

det.

231.24

Retraining, training and maintenance

In order to ensure a smooth takeover of the new material when the self-propelled howitzers are delivered in 1991 and 1992, the following schools and courses are necessary: ​​- Technical courses for officers 1991 - Training courses for members of the autumn 1991 up to heavy cannon departments to be converted at the end of 1992 - Training of additional recruits for mechanized artillery from 1990 onwards The necessary increase in the target number and the shift in the ratio between mechanized and rifled units in favor of mechanized artillery means that in recruiting training there are around 400 more recruits for mechanized artillery and around 400 more for rifled artillery Train 350 fewer recruits

are.

47

The basic training of the existing and the new mechanized artillery formations takes place in the recruiting schools at the two weapon fields in Bière and Frauenfeld. The refresher courses take place alternately every other year on one of these two arsenals and in Bure; the repetition courses in between take place in localities outside the gun range as well as on shooting ranges in the Alpine regions.

Taking into account the existing infrastructure and the existing requirements on the four weapon positions of the artillery as well as the effects of decreasing numbers of recruits on training, the following solution results: - Spring recruit schools:. Carrying of three self-propelled howitzer batteries (as before) at the Bière and Frauenfeld weapons fields; . The stock of the self-propelled howitzer units at these two wading sites is replenished by recruits who have to be specifically trained in the field of mechanized artillery (e.g. command tank drivers, self-propelled howitzer drivers, self-propelled howitzer gunners); . Relocation of recruits who received general artillery training (e.g. motorists, conveyors) to the Monte Ceneri and Sitten arsenals.

  • Summer recruit schools:. Carrying four batteries instead of the previous three batteries at the Frauenfeld arsenal; . Other dispositions as in spring.

The

training

the

Officers, in

the

Self-propelled howitzer

Officer

and the

Shooting schools will only be affected by the planned increase in mechanized artillery insofar as more classes have to be held in these.

For the gun battery to be trained in the summer school at the Frauenfeld weapons field, it is necessary to build accommodation and a training hall. Together with the already planned accommodation for those still in the city barracks today

48

housed

Service battery

and

Fire control

Battery, the following expansion needs arise in Frauenfeld: - Systems for the school command, - Accommodation and ancillary rooms for three batteries, - Training halls for one battery.

The impact on the Bière arsenal is minimal, as three gun batteries are already being used in both the spring and summer recruit schools.

Because fewer soldiers will have to be trained on the 10.5 cm cannons 35 in the future, relief is to be expected at the Sion and Monte Ceneri arsenals.

In order not to increase the immissions and conflicts of interest despite the additional departments, the following restrictions are imposed in the troop courses: - Schedule services also in January and December; - Fundamental restriction of the target practice, per division and repetition course to five effective shooting days; - Abandonment of today's strongest cargo (cargo 8) in the area of ​​agglomerations; - Allocation of rooms and firing ranges for the refresher courses on the basis of long-term planning in agreement with the army unit commanders; - Acceptance of conditions that are ordered by the coordination office; - Reduction of the ammunition allocation in certain troop courses.

For. The training is to convert two self-propelled howitzers from today's stock so that they can be used as driving school chassis and instruction towers. The existing driving simulators, which are used for basic driver training, are sufficient. Additional noise from driving off-road can thus be avoided.

In addition, it is planned to generally use more simulators for the training of the artillery in the future. Corresponding clarifications are in progress.

49

231.3

Technical aspects

231.31

Technical description of the self-propelled howitzer 88 (M-109)

Apart from a few production-related changes, the new self-propelled howitzer 88 corresponds to the guns acquired with the armaments programs 1968 I, 1974 and 1979. It is therefore well known to us as an expedient, tried and tested weapon system suitable for the militia.

The 15.5 cm caliber is satisfactory in terms of range and effectiveness at the target. In contrast to the 10.5 cm caliber, its projectile dimensions allow the most modern ammunition to be fired.

A Swiss loading device that we introduced with the first series has practically doubled the rate of fire compared to the original version.

The turret and hull of the gun are made of welded light metal plates. They protect the crew, the ammunition and the essential assemblies from being hit by handguns, from projectile fragments and from exploding fuel-air mixtures. A Swiss-made Rohrmarschlager, which has also already been introduced and can be operated from inside the vehicle, allows the firing position to be left quickly in the event of enemy fire.

The transmission and fire control means allow use while in motion.

The cross-country mobility enables the self-propelled howitzers to follow the mechanized units to be supported even away from the streets and to adopt tactically optimal positions that are adapted to the terrain. This and the new camouflage paintwork represent an important additional protection factor.

50

The introduction of the new self-propelled howitzers is based on the existing infrastructure and logistics as well as the proven training methodology. This also applies to the change service.

231.32

Alternatives

Drawn guns are only capable of performing the task of modern artillery because of their firepower. However, the effect of their fire is limited by sectors because of the lack of the ability to quickly move the guns. Your ability to react to enemy fire is limited. If they are equipped with an auxiliary drive, this will, at best, allow them to be moved over a few hundred meters without protection, leaving behind material and ammunition. The cross-country mobility is limited by the weight and the wheel drive. Protection is therefore only provided by digging in.

In the spring of 1987 the development of the 15.5 cm self-propelled howitzer SP-70, which was jointly operated by Great Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy, was discontinued after 14 years of work. Further development (using certain components of the SP-70) is not expected until around the year 2000.

The 15.5-cm self-propelled howitzer AS-90, a joint development of Great Britain, the United States and Brazil, has already had its first sniping, but will not be available for testing and evaluation for a long time.The same applies to an Italian self-propelled howitzer and to turrets from different countries proposed for use on the chassis of older battle tanks. The use of such a chassis is a stopgap solution, however, since there is insufficient space inside.

51

231.33

Power reserve

Because there is no alternative, there is great interest among current users of the M-109 self-propelled howitzer in combat value enhancement programs. Increases in range, cadence and ammunition autonomy as well as improvements in survivability, reliability, availability and ease of maintenance are examined. The Panzerhaubitze 88 is therefore a weapon system that can be adapted to the increasing threat well beyond the year 2000.

231.34

Crawler Transport Car 68 (M-548)

The ammunition replenishment for firing positions in the field and when changing positions requires an all-terrain vehicle with a caterpillar drive.

The 54 crawler transport vehicles 68 applied for for procurement correspond - with the exception of a few production-related technical deviations - to the 228 vehicles already procured with the armaments programs 1968 I and 1979. They come from the family of American M-113 armored personnel carriers, have proven themselves well and are easy to maintain. The 5 t heavy, unarmored caterpillar vehicle is suitable for personnel, ammunition and material transport. It is armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun.

The vehicle has an operating range of around 500 km. It is equipped with a winch that can be used for lighter relaxation work. The ammunition is handled with the help of an electric crane, which is mounted on an adjustable crane rail above the loading bridge.

231.35

Fire Control Armored 63 (M-113)

The battery or department fire control centers are in the fire control armored vehicle

52

Installed. It is planned to be 30

convert the existing command tank 63 into the fire control tank 63 version with an integrated fire control system. Two command tanks 63 have already been modified and tested in connection with the artillery fire control system 83 (Fargo) to fire control tanks 63. The project is therefore ready for procurement.

The renovation work, which will affect employment in Germany, essentially includes: - new auxiliary equipment, - extendable tent frame, - installation of the fire control system, - camouflage paintwork, - expansion of the radio equipment.

231.36

ammunition

The canister projectiles 88 and 90 as well as the momentary timer 88 are described in detail under item 232.3.

The other components to supplement the ammunition range have been introduced into our army for years and are still fully state-of-the-art.

The 7.6 cm smoke cartridges required for self-fogging of the self-propelled howitzer are of the same make as for the Leopard tank and the Jäger tank.

53

231.4

procurement

231.41

Procurement credit

The present embassy requests the procurement of the following materials and services:

Million CHF million CHF

108 self-propelled howitzers 88 (M-109), at 1,760,000 francs, equipped with a Swiss loading device, machine gun, winter chain, on-board equipment and fire control material, including adaptation work, license and acceptance costs 54 caterpillar transport car 68 (M-548), at 561 ' 000 francs, equipped with machine gun, electric crane and on-board equipment, including adaptation work and acceptance costs, converting 30 existing command tanks 63 (M-113) into fire control armor 63, including ammunition acceptance costs, including lighting projectiles, shot charges, instantaneous timers 88 and smoke cartridges peripheral material. Replacement material. Maintenance material. Radio material. Other peripheral material, including fixing prisms 84, workshop tents, machine gun barrels, panoramic telescopes, conversion of 2 self-propelled howitzers into driving school chassis and instruction towers. Any changes that become necessary during the manufacture of the self-propelled howitzers and caterpillar transport vehicles (3.4% of the cost of the vehicles) Estimated price increase until delivery Risk (around 3%) Total

190,0

30,3

2,7

13,0 22,7 6,1 3,1

5,7

7,4

45,0 25,0 9,0 315,0

The coveted commitment loan includes the costs of the planned partial license production of the self-propelled howitzers as well as CHF 1.7 million in sales tax for those manufactured in Switzerland

54

Products included.

The price of a single self-propelled howitzer is made up as follows (price basis 1988):

Million CHF

Self-propelled howitzer 88. Vehicle ex works in the USA (without license share in Switzerland) including on-board equipment and machine gun

1,34

. Licensed parts (pipe with muzzle brake and smoke extractor, various brackets, pipe mudguards, fenders and earth spurs). Chain suitable for winter (make Diehl BRD). Loading device (Federal Weapons Factory Bern)

0,10 0,04 0,04

. Adjustment work (Federal Construction Workshop Thun). Fire control material (display devices for fire control computers). Acceptance costs including fire ammunition Total self-propelled howitzer 88

0,20 0,03 0,01 1,76

The price structure for the self-propelled howitzers could be checked by representatives of the Swiss Federal Audit Office in cooperation with the "Défense Contract Audit Agency" of the American Defense Department directly at the supplier. The detailed, joint analysis of the calculation showed that the prices offered by BMY are reasonable. The 207 self-propelled howitzers approved with the 1979 armaments program were settled by the American government at around 509,500 dollars. The price now negotiated for 108 self-propelled howitzers is around $ 837,200. The price increase of 64 percent is largely due to the rise in prices that has now occurred in the USA and to a lesser extent to the lower number of units. It should also be taken into account that the contract with BMY, unlike the one concluded in 1979 with the American government, contains a guarantee and an obligation for indirect participation.

55

The following picture emerges with the caterpillar transport wagon:

Million CHF

-

Crawler Transport Car 68. Vehicle ex works in the USA including on-board equipment, machine gun and acceptance costs

, 0,50

. Adjustment work

i 0.06

Total tracked transport wagon 68

0,56

Based on cost information from the American government, the price for the crawler transport vehicles can be described as reasonable. It is planned to also review the offer made by FMC in the spring of 1988 in cooperation with the Swiss Federal Audit Office.

231.42

Procurement scope

When determining the scope of procurement, the aim was to use existing material reserves and existing infrastructures as far as possible for the creation of the six additional departments. This resulted in the following: - Self-propelled howitzers To equip the six departments, 108 self-propelled howitzers are required as corps material. No self-propelled howitzers are procured as reserves.

  • Kommahdopanzer 63 and Feuerleitpanzer 63 In today's organization, a self-propelled howitzer department type B includes eleven command tanks 63 and five fire control tanks 63. Both vehicle types are based on the American M-113 infantry fighting vehicle, which is in large numbers in our army and whose design is based on the early sixties going back. Although this vehicle is still produced today in an improved version

will is

a subsequent procurement, especially with regard to the planned replacement by a new generation, is not justified.

56

bar. An attempt was therefore made to meet the new requirements by redistributing the existing stocks of M-113 armored personnel carriers. Therefore, the remaining reserves are to be dissolved except for a few vehicles and the firing commanders' squads as well as the reconnaissance officers in all B-formations will in future receive all-terrain wheeled vehicles of the Pinzgauer type instead of command tanks.

Crawler transport wagons 68 The investigations showed that an analogous redistribution of the existing vehicles is not feasible for the following reasons:. The current stock consists of 228 crawler transport vehicles. Six vehicles each are allocated to the instruction material and the reserve. Replacing these vehicles with a new generation is not planned for the long term either.

. With the intention of distributing the ammunition by lorry, the purchase of self-propelled howitzers in 1974 dispensed with the purchase of caterpillar transport vehicles.

Experience has shown, however, that in many cases the all-terrain mobility of a truck is insufficient and the ammunition cannot be tracked according to the order of the self-propelled howitzers. Based on this knowledge, the caterpillar transport vehicles for the six departments formed with the 1974 armaments program were subsequently procured with the 1979 armaments program.

Ammunition With the present armaments program (No. 232) the procurement of modern combat ammunition is requested for the already introduced as well as for the new self-propelled howitzer departments. This and the associated restructuring of the ammunition range make it possible to forego the purchase of further steel and smoke incendiary grenades. However, requests for procurement are made for the lighting projectiles with the fuses, the shot charges and the ammunition for the smoke throwers.

Peripheral material. Spare parts and maintenance material The one requested with the present embassy

procurement

of spare parts and maintenance material is limited

57

the replenishment of positions with insufficient reserves as well as the material required for equipping the additionally required spare parts and workshop trolleys. The resulting expense therefore only amounts to 10 percent of the procurement costs for the self-propelled howitzers and caterpillar transport vehicles.

Teaching material The additional need for teaching material is limited to the conversion of two self-propelled howitzers into driving school chassis and instruction towers mentioned in Section 231.24. These chassis and towers can - like the already existing 13 driving school chassis and instruction towers - be reassembled into battle-ready self-propelled howitzers with relatively little effort if necessary.

231.43

Procurement organization

The Armaments Services Group has overall responsibility for carrying out the procurement. Its main business partners are: - Bowen Me Laughlin (BMY), York, Pennsylvania, USA, as general contractor for the manufacture and supply of the self-propelled howitzers 88 (M-109); - Federal Design Workshop Thun as general contractor for the production of the licensed parts and the implementation of the Swiss adaptation work on the armored howitzers 88; - Eidgenössische Waffenfabrik Bern for the manufacture and delivery of the loading device for the self-propelled howitzer; - Food Machine Corporation (FMC), San Jose, California, as general contractor for the manufacture of the Track Carriage 68 (M 548); - American government for granting the license rights to manufacture the gun barrel and other components for the self-propelled howitzer as well as gun shells;

for the

Delivery of

Lighting

  • Eidgenössische Munitionsfabrik Thun for the delivery of shot loads.

58

231.44

Offers and contracts

An option contract was concluded with the manufacturer, the American company BMY in York, for the delivery of the self-propelled howitzer.

The previous purchases of self-propelled howitzers were made through the American government using the "Foreign Military Sales" (FMS) procedure. In the case of such FMS procurements, the American government acts as the buyer on behalf of the foreign customer vis-à-vis the manufacturer. When negotiating and executing contracts, the American government applies the same principles as when purchasing for its own armed forces.

Until the early 1980s, arms purchases from America with a contract value of more than $ 25 million had to be processed using the FMS procedure.

Today's legislation now allows armaments to be purchased directly from the manufacturer without any restrictions. However, it is still possible to obtain them using the FMS procedure described.

After examining the two types of procurement, a direct purchase from the manufacturer BMY is judged to be more advantageous for the following reasons: - There is no price advantage by combining our requirements with procurement for the American armed forces, since according to current planning this does not apply to the howitzers intended for us will have their own in production.

  • Technical support is no longer required. Sufficient personal experience is available, especially with regard to operation and maintenance.
  • In the case of a direct purchase, a fixed price can be agreed, whereby the appropriateness of the prices can be based on previous purchases of self-propelled howitzers.

judged

become

  • In the case of an FMS purchase, the self-propelled howitzers would be delivered around a year later

begin than with one

Directly-

59

purchase. This is due to the fact that the American government can only negotiate with BMY after the contract has been signed with us, i.e. after the loan has been approved by the federal councils.

  • The earlier delivery results in significant advantages: on the one hand, around 10 million Swiss francs in inflation are saved; on the other hand - in contrast to a purchase through FMS - the risk of a production interruption between the current production and the manufacture of the howitzers intended for Switzerland can be excluded. Resuming production after an interruption would be associated with additional costs.
  • In both cases, the indirect participation, which was newly required compared to the previous one, must be negotiated directly with the manufacturer. The negotiations carried out in this context have shown that BMY in a. Direct purchase is ready for larger concessions than with one. FMS purchase through the American government.

An option contract was signed with the Swiss Federal Construction Workshop to carry out the Swiss adaptation work on the self-propelled howitzers, including the manufacture of the gun barrel and other components under license. The delivery of the loading device by the Eidgenössische Waffenfabrik is also guaranteed by an option contract.

An option contract for the delivery of 54 crawler transport wagons 68 was negotiated with the American company FMC.

The execution of the Swiss adaptation work is to be awarded in a competition. Related offers with price limits are available.

For the parts of the self-propelled howitzer to be manufactured under license in Switzerland: A license agreement is negotiated with the American Defense Department.

The other purchases (e.g. for ammunition, conversion of the 30 command tanks into fire control tanks, tools and special vehicles for maintenance

60

as well as general equipment

service material) at various domestic and foreign companies are secured by offers that contain binding price limits; however, the relevant contracts have yet to be definitively negotiated.

231.45

Domestic share and participation of Swiss industry

231.451

overview

28 percent of the material applied for under item 231 is manufactured in Switzerland. For Swiss industry, this means an order volume of 87 million francs.

This sum consists of the purchase of Swiss material in the amount of 73 million francs and the license production of foreign components (direct participation) in the amount of 14 million francs. Agreements on counter transactions have also been concluded with the companies BMY and FMC; these will trigger an additional order volume of CHF 139 million in Switzerland.

In the case of the self-propelled howitzers, the main focus is on the manufacture of the gun barrel under license and the installation of a loading device manufactured by the Swiss Federal Arms Factory and a barrel hammer that was developed in Switzerland. In addition, various changes to the interior fittings as well as adaptations of the equipment to the Swiss Road Traffic Act are made. The Federal Construction Workshop in Thun is to be commissioned to carry out this work.

The caterpillar transport vehicles are equipped with an electric crane and a tarpaulin roof. In addition, the equipment must also be adapted to the Swiss Road Traffic Act. This work is to be awarded to a private company as part of a competition.

The conversion of 30 existing command tanks 63 into fire control tanks 63 - this involves changes to the radio equipment

61

performance and the installation of the artillery fire control system 83 Fargo - is to be awarded to the private industry on the basis of a tender.

In the case of ammunition, the shot charges

in the

Switzerland

produced.

Further domestic orders arise in the areas of replacement and teaching material.

231.452

Direct participation

In order to increase the domestic share, the possibilities of license production of individual parts of the self-propelled howitzer were clarified. It turned out that due to the relatively small number of units and the low exchange rate of the dollar, direct participation is only possible to a limited extent for economic reasons.

The core of the direct participation is the license production of the gun barrel with muzzle brake and smoke extractor for the Panzerhaubitze 88. This assembly was already manufactured in Switzerland for the armored howitzers approved with the 1979 armaments program. The know-how acquired in the process: can be retained and further expanded with the new order.

The contract partner is the Swiss Federal Construction Workshop in Thun. This in turn will subcontract the production of the blanks and the chrome plating of the tube loading space to the private industry.

The direct participation also includes other parts of the self-propelled howitzer from the areas of turret, hull and landing gear; Among other things, the caterpillars procured in the Federal Republic are to be equipped with Swiss rubber pads.

The direct participation involves additional costs of CHF 6.6 million, which corresponds to two percent of the total procurement costs.

62

231.453

Indirect participation

The armaments services group has concluded agreements with the companies BMY and FMC on the indirect participation of Swiss industry. The company BMY has undertaken to offset 70 percent of the share of the purchase price due to it through counter-deals with Swiss industry.

This corresponds to an order volume of around 110 million francs. FMC's commitment includes 100 percent of the purchase price for the caterpillar transport wagons (CHF 29 million).

The economic compensation must have been fulfilled by the end of 1995. The shares mentioned are secured by contractual penalties.

231.46

Procurement timing

The self-propelled howitzers made in the USA.

will be from January to December 1990 in After the work has been carried out in the

Switzerland, the delivery to the troops takes place in the period from the beginning of 1991 to the end of 1992.

The delivery of the fire control tanks, the caterpillar transport vehicles, the ammunition as well as the spare parts and maintenance material is coordinated with the delivery program of the self-propelled howitzers.

The troops' retraining courses can thus be carried out from autumn 1991 to the end of 1992. At the Frauenfeld arsenal, however, a temporary solution (placement of a battery for the specialist recruit school outside the arsenal, occupancy of the infrastructure that will become available with a self-propelled howitzer battery) must be accepted until the new buildings are available.

63

231.5

Risk assessment

The proposed project is a subsequent procurement of material that has already been introduced and which has proven itself in use over several years.

The parts intended for license production were already used for the first time as part of the procurement of 207 self-propelled howitzers, which was approved in the 1979 armaments program. manufactured. The corresponding know-how, especially for the demanding manufacture of the gun barrel, is thus available.

The overall risk for the requested procurement can therefore be classified as small.

231.6

Pole costs and buildings

For the maintenance of the requested material and for the procurement of replacement material, annual additional costs of around CHF 2.3 million are to be expected. The annual additional costs for the training ammunition amount to around 2 million francs.,, For the logistics, 5000 m2 of parking space, 3500 m3 of tank storage space, additional storage space for the basic equipment and protected storage space for the ammunition reserve are required.

The estimated costs for these logistics buildings are around 30 million francs.

For the training of additional recruits of the mechanized artillery at the Frauenfeld arsenal, accommodation and training halls for a battery must be built. The costs for this amount to around CHF 1 million. As mentioned in section 231.24, these buildings are to be implemented as part of a further expansion phase, which is to be applied for with a building message from 1990 onwards. The total costs will be around 40 million francs.

64

232

15.5 cm canister ammunition (CHF 280.0 million)

232.Ì

introduction

The procurement of canister bullets 88, canister bullets 90 and momentary time fuses 88 is requested. The canister bullet 88 is filled with 63 daughter bullets. The canister floor 90 contains 49 daughter floors and one so-called

Suction unit,

Which

him

a

bigger

Range gives. , The daughter floors

will be above that

Target area

expelled

sen. Each daughter bullet contains a shaped charge that is able to penetrate the armor when it hits a tank from above. The daughter floor also works through pressure and splinters. The main advantage of canister ammunition is that it can achieve a

large area effect

With

the

first

Ge

shot position of a fire unit. Compared to the previous ammunition, a larger area becomes denser with splinters

covered

and a significantly higher likelihood of armored vehicle destruction.

232.2

Military aspects

232.21

Military justification

The

today's

Ammunition inventory

the

artillery

consists

to

Mainly from steel grenades. The effect and structure of these ammunition have remained essentially the same over the past 60-70 years; Progress has only been made with regard to safety and increased shooting distance.

The

to be combated

Have goals

yourself

in the

last

15-20

Years, however, changed greatly Armored targets are increasingly expected today.

For some time now, the

15.5 cm canister

shoot in the market, have various foreign armies

3 Federal Gazette. 140th year. Vol. II

65

For some time now, considerable parts of their ammunition stocks have been converted from conventional steel grenades to this new type of ammunition.

With the procurement of the canister ammunition for the existing and newly requested self-propelled howitzers, the firepower of the artillery can be increased significantly.

232.22

Judgment by the troops

The canister ammunition was based on combined technical tests and troop tests as well as logistical clarifications

judged.

Ammunition performance

and

Possible uses

meet the military requirements. On the basis of the test results, the canister projectiles 88, the canister projectiles 90 as well as the instantaneous time fuses 88 and the rest of the material can be declared to be suitable for troops.

232.23

Integration with the troops

The canister ammunition is added to the basic and supplementary equipment as well as the reserve.

The steel grenades and smoke incendiary grenades that were partially released by the introduction of the canister ammunition are distributed among the self-propelled howitzers that have been requested for procurement. This is a first step in terms of restructuring the range of ammunition for 15.5 cm self-propelled howitzers.

232.24

Retraining and training

The Artillery Simulator 77 has to be adapted for retraining and training, and teaching material on canister ammunition has to be procured.

Canister ammunition cannot be fired in peacetime due to the lack of suitable firing ranges in Switzerland.

As with the rest of the artillery ammunition, training should be carried out with the tried and tested explosive practice grenade.

232.3

Technical aspects

232.31

Description and general services

The 15.5 cm canister projectiles 88 and 90 are fired with the introduced and the newly requested 15.5 cm self-propelled howitzers. The partial loads 3-7 and the additional load 8 introduced by us can be used. The canister bullets are twist stabilized. They essentially consist of the projectile casing, the daughter projectiles, the mechanical instantaneous time fuse 88 and the ejection charge.

When fired, the current time fuse is unlocked. After the set time has elapsed, this ignites the ejection charge, the pressure of which shears off the floor of the bullet via an ejector piston and ejects the daughter bullets. These are distributed over an area of ​​about 100 x 150 m at the finish. The projection height of the daughter floors above the target area is between 750 m and 400 m and is influenced by the top speed, the twist and the angle of fall of the canister floor. The individual daughter floors are distributed by the rotation of the floors and stabilized by means of a textile band. The difference between the rotation of the textile belt and the daughter bullet unlocks the firing mechanism of the daughter bullets. Fold-out wings act as a brake and reduce the twist, which is important for the armor-piercing effect of the shaped charge. When they hit the ground, impact fuses detonate the explosives of the daughter projectiles.

For both canister bullets

to

can have the same shooting

driving can be applied.

67

Both canister floors are designed in such a way that the range can be increased later with heavier loads.

232.32

Course of development

The development of a 15.5 cm canister bullet began in the OSA in the early 1960s. These projectiles were only introduced into the armed forces towards the end of the 1970s. At the beginning of the eighties, one Israeli and two German companies carried out the development of the technology of canister bullets on behalf of the German Bundeswehr, whereby the range was improved in particular. The Israeli product is currently being used for the needs of the Bundeswehr both by the manufacturer in Israel and under license in Germany

232.33

produced.

15.5 cm canister bullet 88

The 15.5 cm canister bullet 88 with 63 daughter bullets

is

90 cm long and 47 kg heavy. The projectile body consists essentially of a projectile casing made of steel, a partial sheathing with glass fiber reinforced plastic and a welded copper guide band. The top and bottom of the bullet are made of aluminum.

The determination of the artillery discrepancy, i.e. the deviation of the actual projectile trajectory from the calculated values ​​- which may be for meteorological reasons, for example - is carried out with the 15.5 cm canister bullet 88 with the cheaper HE grenade that has been introduced. Both projectiles have approximately the same trajectory.

68

Canister floor 88; ready to fire (left) transport status (right)

232.34

15.5 cm canister bullet 90

The 15.5 cm canister bullet 90 is 90 cm long and weighs 42.3 kg. The structure of the projectile is similar to that of the canister projectile 88. In contrast, the payload consists of only 49 subsidiary projectiles. Compared to canister projectile 88, it has an aerodynamically more favorable shape. Instead of the floor, a suction reduction unit is used, which leads to an increase in the firing distance. It consists of a housing that can be screwed into the shell shell with a fuel and an ignition set. On the back of the housing there is an opening through which the cases produced by the burning set flow out. The opening is sealed by a rubber membrane that is destroyed when fired. The burning charge of the suction reduction unit is released by the hot gases of the

69

Propellant powder ignites and then burns down continuously. The gases escaping at the rear of the projectile reduce the projectile's suction resistance. The firing range can thus be increased by 20-25 percent. The burning time of the set depends on the atmospheric conditions. The

Sogreduk-

tion mainly affects the ascending branch of the trajectory. The technical testing has provided evidence of functional reliability.

In the case of the 15.5 cm canister projectile 90, the artillery discrepancy cannot be determined with the high explosive grenade introduced, since the latter deviates in the ballistic values. By screwing in a special explosive charge, called "spotting charge" in technical terms, the canister projectile 90 can be converted into an explosive grenade; thus the ejection process of the daughter floors becomes what makes it observable and measurable.

H

ä% i

sÄ »** H

t ^ f

Canister floor 90; Ready to fire (left) Transport status (right) 70

simulated,

232.35

Daughter floors

The cylindrical daughter bullet, also known as the bomblet in technical terms, is 56 mm long, has a diameter of 42 mm and weighs 300 g. The active part consists of an explosives holder

out

Aluminum,

one

Copper insert

and

one

Steel jacket. The latter consists partly of pre-fragmented steel rings from which the splinters are formed. The shaped charge

consists of a pressed, highly explosive explosive

fabric and a trumpet-shaped copper insert.

The mechanical tet.

Ignition system

The Elements

is on the daughter floor

to reduce twist

delighted

and the textile tape

for position stabilization are attached to the ignition system.

Daughter floor Left: Before the ejection process Right: After the ejection process (with unfolded textile band and folded out wings)

71

The highly sensitive percussion fuse shows the smallest delays, so too

speaks as soon as it hits

at on

Snow. The impact speed of the free-falling daughter floors is 40-50 m / s.

On the occasion of the technical Schiesser test it was stated that a small failure rate is to be expected.

Compared to other similar types of ammunition, however, the functional reliability of the daughter bullets can be assessed as good.

In order to increase the functional reliability and thus further reduce the dud rate, the ammunition manufacturer is currently using an ignition system with automatic self-destruction

the

Daughter floors

developed.

This

becomes

by

A pyrotechnic charge is reached, which begins to burn after the daughter projectiles are ejected from the projectile casing and after a certain time bursts the active body. It is planned to test this ignition system in 1988 and to procure it if the result is positive. The necessary costs are included in the procurement credit applied for.

232.36

Current time detonator 88

The mechanical instantaneous time fuse 88 is 9.5 cm long when screwed on and weighs 640 g. It can be continuously adjusted between 2 and 200 seconds. The detonator has a storage and transport lock. Before shooting, it must be unlocked and set to the desired time. It only becomes functional through the acceleration of the launch. The instant timer 88 is set to timer for normal use. In the special case of shooting in, it can also be switched to impact ignition.

72

, ,

,

Momentary time fuse

88

The momentary timer 88 is specially designed for canister projectiles. It was developed by the American army under the designation M-577 and later improved by American industry to the version M-577 AI. It is the standard fuse for canister bullets of calibers 15.5 cm and 20.3 cm.

The fuses available in our artillery stocks (momentary time detonator 565, time detonator 80, momentary time detonator 68) have too short a running time or their construction is not suitable for firing with canister projectiles.

The momentary timer 88 is also suitable for the introduced 15.5 cm lighting projectiles.

73

232.37

Adjustments to introduced material

15.5 cm self-propelled howitzers 66/74, 74 and 79 Compared to the steel grenades that have been introduced, the canister bullets are around 20 cm longer and have a larger diameter at the rear. This is necessary for the 15.5 cm armored howitzers 66/74, 74 and mounting brackets.

79 Changes to the municipal

Artillery fire control system 83 The firing elements, such as the elevation and angle of the gun, charge and fuse setting, are controlled by the electronic artillery fire control system 83; calculated. The computer software must be expanded to include the trajectory data for both canister floors. The exact trajectory data must be determined for each of the different propellant charges in the live shot. The costs for changing the software are included in the procurement credit applied for.

232.38

Ammunition monitoring