What is the story of Algeria
The History of Algeria can hardly be summed up in a few lines, it is so interesting and turbulent and above all it goes back very far, back to the Ice Age. Because even when Algeria as a state did not yet exist within these borders, the first inhabitants settled in this immense area of around 2.38 million square kilometers (almost the size of Western Europe), as evidenced by numerous traces of settlement, stone tools (pebble tools) and bone finds.
World heritage sites
Country and people
Paleolithic to Neolithic
The first were about 10,000 years ago Rock engravings and Rock paintings created that still cast a spell over visitors today. Over the centuries, the artists refined their techniques and this is how today's open-air museums emerged Tassili n'Ajjer in the south-eastern Sahara of Algeria and in the Sahara Atlas. Rock paintings and engravings have also been found again and again in other areas of Algeria. The greatest precision in the execution of rock art was achieved by the inhabitants in the so-called cattle epoch, which dates from around 6000 to 2500 BC. took. The most recent paintings were made in the camel era around 100 BC. created.
from around 1500 BC.
Began around 1250 BC Phoenicians To colonize North African coastal areas or to establish trading and naval bases. Places like Algiers, Tipaza, Cherchell and Constantine are among the most important trading centers of the Phoenicians, 814 BC. They founded Carthage in what is now Tunisia.
Trans-Saharan trade had been going on for at least 1000 BC. Known. Back then the desert was crossed with oxen, carts and two-wheeled chariots.
Herodotus, the famous Greek historian, describes the Saharan areas and the inhabitants for the first time.
from 3rd century BC
From the 3rd century BC onwards, Berber tribes formed political units under the leadership of Numidian princes and in part supported the emerging great power of Rome against Carthage. One under the rule of the colonial experienced Romans The flourishing economy resulted in a lively, independent cultural life in North Africa. Even today, numerous remains of magnificently laid out cities and buildings bear witness to the wealth and culture of this Roman era in the Maghreb.
From the 3rd century AD, Christianity quickly found its way into North Africa, and important personalities such as the sanctify Aurelius Augustine from Hippo (today Annaba).
from 429 AD
State crises in Rome, tax burdens on the provinces due to the mother city, as well as religious disputes between pagans and Christians, and Christians among themselves, finally led to the collapse of Roman rule and enabled the coming from Spain Vandals the almost unresisted occupation of most of what is now Algeria. For a hundred years they ruled the country, hated and isolated from the people because of their harsh regime and their Arian sectarianism.
from 534 AD
In the year 534 the Eastern Roman General Belisarius put an end to the rule of the vandals who have become effeminate in wealth and become divided.
For more than a century now the Byzantines/ Ostromer the legacy of the Romans, even if their power extended almost only to the coastal area.
After the death of Mohamed in 632, the spread Arabs and brought Islam to North Africa as well. Their conquests reached a temporary climax in 711 when they crossed the Strait from Gibraltar to Andalusia. After the collapse of the rule of the Omayyad caliphs in Damascus in 750, the efforts to become independent again gained Berber on the ground. Three principalities developed. The eastern part of Algeria belonged to the kingdom of the rulers in Kairouan Aghlabids, the western to that of the Idrissids in Fes, Morocco. In the hinterland of the Algerian coastal area occupied by the Arabs, Berber tribes established the Kharidjism assumed a principality in Tahert (at today's Tiaret, which lasts from 776 to 909.
from 1000 AD
A decisive event for Algeria was the conversion to Sunni Orthodoxy in 1047 by the Ziridsprinces and the separation from the Shiite Fatimids. Thereupon the Fatimid Caliph sent some predatory nomadic tribes to Cairo, especially the Beni Hilal, to Algeria, promising them western territory as their property. They "massacred the population, destroyed cities and devastated fields," writes Ibn Khaldoun, the Arab historian. The Berber tribes fled the onslaught of the eastern nomad hordes into the mountains and into the Sahara. So the coastal strip was open to Arab settlement. Only in western Morocco did the Hilalians come to a standstill.
In the 11th century the Berber conquered Almoravids from their capital Marrakech from western Algeria and left behind many testimonies of Moorish civilization, as well as the Berber ones from the High Atlas Almohadswho surrendered the whole of the Maghreb to Tripolitania in the 12th century. In the 13th century, the Almohad empire split into several successor states.
For the first time in the history of the Maghreb, three separate kingdoms are emerging that will be the forerunners of today's lands. Eastern Algeria is part of the Tunisian Hafsiden Empire, um Western Algeria For more than 250 years, the Abd el Wadites, who reside in Tlemcen, have quarreled with the Hafsids and, above all, with the Moroccan Merenids.
After numerous internal conflicts and the succession of Muslim conquests, the Maghreb experienced a time of stability and cultural prosperity.
from 15th century AD
From the early 15th century the Christians to gain ground in Spain. Little by little they drove out the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants of Andalusia. They were going to Morocco and Western Algeria pushed back. The last bastion fell in 1492, Granada.
The Andalusian refugees were accepted in Algeria as well as in northern Morocco or Tunisia and brought their knowledge of water management and agriculture with them. The scholars, artists and scientists enabled another heyday in the Maghreb.
The Christian Spaniards pursued their opponents to African soil and in 1505 captured Mers el Kebir, the port near Oran. Further attacks against the Algerian coastal cities followed. The ports of Algiers and Bejaia were under fire, and in 1509 the Oran was taken.
In 1516 the Algerians called the Turks for help. The brothers Aruj and Chaireddin Barbarossa, two experienced seafarers, conquered Algiers and made it their capital and trading center with the Mediterranean countries to the north and east. For the next 300 years, the rulers of Algeria were Turkish Deys der Janissaries, the elite troops of the Sultan in Istanbul. The power sank through internal quarrels and when the last Dey of Algiers wanted to make himself independent from the Sultan, saw French people and the English got their chance to invade Algeria as well.
The Berber in the interior of the country enjoyed practical independence.
Shortly after the conquest by the French in 1830, resistance began and the emirAbd el Kader united many Berber tribes and led the fight against the French from 1832 with perseverance and martial dexterity until he had to give up the now hopeless fight in 1847.
The French achieved their goals with brutal severity. A large number of French settlers were constantly being smuggled in and given the best lands that they had taken from the Algerians on flimsy grounds. The areas around Algiers, Oran and Constantine were declared by law as departments belonging to metropolitan France. Language, religion and the French way of life were forced upon the Algerians.
Until the French plans to build a railroad through the Sahara, they were Tuareg little involved in the history of the north in the south. They were traders and ranchers and their caravans moved through the desert to Ghadames in what is now Libya and Kano in what is now Nigeria. It was only when France wanted to connect its colonies in West Africa with the Mediterranean that the "Algerian" Tuareg moved into the center of the action. In 1880 they were able to successfully prevent an advance by the French major Flatters, but in 1902 they had to surrender to the modern weapons of the French at Tit in the Ahaggar Mountains.
After a long and tough struggle for freedom from 1954 in which hundreds of thousands of Algerians perished, Algeria became independent on July 5th, 1962 and a new era began in Algeria.
Of course, these lines cannot express the entire history of Algeria, but they are intended to give the reader a brief overview.
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