What are the benefits of health education

SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROMOTION CONCEPTS. Federal Center for Health Education

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1 CONCEPTS Federal Center for Health Education SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION 2

2 The Federal Center for Health Education is an authority within the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Health with its seat in Cologne. The BZgA has the task of promoting health at the national level. To this end, she conducts awareness-raising campaigns on key health issues. The BZgA places a second focus on quality assurance. To this end, it prepares scientific studies in different subject areas, records needs and promotes transparency through market observation and analysis. Qualification, cooperation as well as the development of concepts and innovative strategies are further focal points of this area of ​​responsibility. The concept of the health of children and adolescents lays the foundations of a central focus of the BZgA's work. It provides information on the framework conditions and the initial epidemiological situation. Based on an approach that focuses on successfully coping with developmental tasks in childhood and adolescence, objectives and topics are formulated. The communication approach includes both the conveyance of information and the strengthening of self-confidence, personal responsibility and the ability to deal with conflict. The methods of quality assurance are presented, and the central cooperation partners are named in a final chapter.

3 CONCEPTS Federal Center for Health Education SCHOOL HEALTH EDUCATION AND HEALTH PROMOTION 2

4 The German Library CIP standard recording School health education and health promotion / Federal Center for Health Education [Editor: Heike Ettischer]. Cologne: BZgA, 2000 (Concepts / Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA); 2) ISBN Publisher: Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA) Ostmerheimer Str. 220, Cologne Tel .: 0221 / Fax: 0221 / All rights reserved. Editorial management: Heike Ettischer Editor: Dr. Eveline Maslon, Katharina Salice-Stephan Design and realization: Salice-Stephan, Cologne Printing: Druckhaus Süd, Cologne Edition: Printed on recycled paper. This brochure is available free of charge from the order address: BZgA, Cologne, and via the Internet at the address order number:

5 CONCEPTS Table of contents 1. General conditions 5 2. Initial situation Health status of children and adolescents The school system Statistical data on pupils and teachers Aims, principles and topics of school health education Health education and health promotion Definition of the situation in school health education The newer concepts for school health education and health promotion Previous measures of the BZgA for school health education Perspectives of the BZgA for school health education and health promotion Objectives Topic 17 School health education and health promotion (2000) 3

6 5. Implementation strategies Media and measures Media for the classroom BZgA series of publications on health education and schools (G + S) Bundling of media New media Distribution channels Measures Short-term measures Involving parents Qualification: teacher training and teacher training Health advice Market overviews Cooperation and quality assurance Outlook 32 CONCEPTS 2

7 CONCEPTS 1 Framework conditions The health of children and adolescents is the current focus of the Federal Center for Health Education. With regard to preventive measures, childhood and adolescence is an important stage in life because health-related behaviors and lifestyles as well as the shaping of health-related attitudes already begin in childhood. This is why a health education that begins early and is continuously continued has the best prospects of long-term success in health promotion and disease prevention. Health education for children and adolescents is embedded in institutional and social contexts. In addition to the family, the kindergarten and youth leisure area, the school as a living and learning space represents a central field of intervention for preventive measures. Here, an organized form of learning takes place in the classroom. Adolescents from all social classes can be reached over a period of 12 to 13 years. Due to its upbringing and educational mandate, the school is obliged to participate in health education. According to the KMK report of June 5, 1992, health education in general schools is part of the compulsory, compulsory elective and elective area. Health education issues are dealt with in specialist classes and across subjects. Health education is also anchored in the curricula of vocational schools. 1 1 Cf. Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Ed.) (1992): On the situation of health education in schools Bonn. School health education and health promotion (2000) 5

8 Initial situation 22.1 Health status of children and adolescents In general, children and adolescents can be assumed to have a high health potential. Nevertheless, it can be stated that despite clear improvements in material living conditions and great success in medical treatment, B. from infectious diseases the health of children and adolescents is now more threatened in a different way than in earlier times. Social upheavals and the changed living conditions of adolescents must be seen as an important cause. Many children and adolescents today increasingly show deficits in physical endurance, age-appropriate physical strength and coordination skills. Finally, behavioral problems and concentration disorders, poor posture, malnutrition, chronic diseases, allergic diseases and the spread of addictive and addictive diseases are increasingly being found. In the individual federal states, there are therefore differences in the types of school, the length of time they attend and the content of the guidelines and curricula. 2 Cf. BZgA (Hrsg.) (1999): Health of Children Epidemiological Basics Expert Conference. 2nd ed. [ ]. Cologne (Research and Practice in Health Promotion, Vol. 3). 6 CONCEPTS 2

9 CONCEPTS Full-time compulsory schooling (compulsory schooling) at general schools is nine years, in four federal states ten years and the subsequent compulsory part-time schooling (compulsory vocational school) three years. 2.3 Statistical data on pupils and teachers In 1996 around 11 million pupils attended general education schools, plus 2.48 million young people at vocational schools. Table 1 shows the distribution of schools, pupils and teachers in the individual school levels. 3 Primary level, lower secondary level, upper secondary level II, grades 1 to 4, grades 5 to 10, grades 11 to 12 (13) primary schools, secondary schools (from grade 11), integrated orientation level, integrated comprehensive schools, secondary schools, secondary schools, etc., integrated (information on beruf - Comprehensive schools, lichen schools in grammar schools, etc. brackets) Number of schools (7,641) Number of pupils Number of teachers Table 1 3 Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (Ed.) (1997) : Basic and structural data 1997/98. Bonn, S School health education and health promotion (2000) 7

10 This does not include pupils at private general education schools and at private vocational schools. In addition, pupils attended the special schools. They were taught by teachers. Goals, principles and topics of school health education School health education is part of a comprehensive preventive health care system and health promotion that includes all individual, family and public efforts to maintain and improve people's health. According to the decision of the KMK, health education is understood as a mandate to promote a health-promoting way of life and living environment with regard to physical, mental and social health. 5 According to this, school health education aims to enable pupils to make decisions that are conducive to health and thus to take responsibility for themselves and their environment, to help pupils become aware of their own behaviors and values ​​as well as the behaviors and values ​​of others, pupils Provide knowledge and skills that support the development of a health-promoting lifestyle, help develop and promote the self-esteem of students. 6 The following principles are derived from the goals: School health education is behavior-related and starts with the life and experience of the pupils, 4 Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (Ed.) (1997), op. S Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Ed.) (1992), op. S Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Ed.) (1992), op. S CONCEPTS 2

11 CONCEPTS is action-oriented in that it enables discovering, exploratory perception and self-activity as well as initiating the willingness to act and make decisions, must seek cooperation with parents and legal guardians, is based on a health concept that takes people into account in their physical, psychological, social, economic and ecological conditions . 7 According to the guidelines and curricula of all countries, the priorities of school health education are anchored in the following topics: hygiene / dental health care, nutrition education, sex education and AIDS prevention, addiction prevention, first aid, sport and exercise education. The curricula attach particular importance to interdisciplinary or interdisciplinary work in health education. This assessment is in line with the fact that in the Länder the content of health education is usually divided into several subjects. Biology, social studies and sport are to be mentioned as so-called leading subjects, but subjects such as home economics, chemistry, physics, religion / ethics and technology / work studies also offer corresponding points of contact. Finally, the spiral curricular approach is important. The topics are dealt with several times over the course of school and across school levels, under different aspects and with age-appropriate complexity. 7 Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Ed.) (1992), op. S. 9. School health education and health promotion (2000) 9

12 2.5 Health education and health promotion Definition of terms Health education, which is primarily aimed at influencing behavior, is only one aspect of health and school, although the term health education is expressly used in all curricula. Health promotion is an overarching task and consists primarily of health education; But it also includes the creation of healthy conditions in everyday school life. What is meant are measures taken by the school authorities, the cultural administration and the individual teachers who serve to keep pupils healthy: ergonomic seating and work tables, appropriate lighting and ventilation, hygienic conditions, appealing classroom and schoolyard design, a pleasant working atmosphere, healthy catering and much more Health education in schools has a long tradition. However, their effectiveness is difficult to assess, and it is also not possible to assess them on a uniform level, since not all health-educational efforts can be evaluated, and certainly not be checked for their long-term effects. Some results are available on traditional health education of the sixties and seventies. At that time, the purely cognitively oriented transfer of knowledge or the transfer of knowledge about health risk factors was in the foreground. The success of these measures has been very limited. It turned out that the acquisition of the essential knowledge and insights by no means resulted in the desired attitudes and skills. The discrepancy between knowledge and action, which is known to every educator, is scarcely more evident than in health education (cognitive dissonance). 10 CONCEPTS 2

13 CONCEPTS Another reason for the lack of comprehensive success in school health education can be seen in the fact that the development and promotion of health-related behavior is influenced by a whole range of factors (e.g. family, kindergarten, school, peer group, mass media) , among which the school does not even take the first place. The family has undoubtedly the greatest influence. It has a more permanent, more varied and more intense effect on children and young people than any other factor. Above all, it influences the child with its targeted measures and its entire lifestyle at an age when its habits are developing and consolidating. School health education must therefore often tackle harmful behavior that has already become a habit in the home. The newer concepts for school health education and health promotion Newer didactic designs for health education and health promotion try to take the mentioned influencing factors more into account. These drafts contain health-educational ideas based on the concept of lifestyles (lifestyle concept). A new perspective is introduced to explain the health situation: human behavior is seen as a complex of behavioral structures and sequences that develop and manifest under specific economic, ecological, social and cultural conditions and contexts. Health behavior is part of these structures; it is shaped by them, just as it affects them on the other hand. 9 Thus, these concepts reveal many further elements. The concept of a healthy school 10 and the whole 8 Cf. Eschenhagen, D. et al. (²1993): Fachdidaktik Biologie. Cologne. 9 Cf. Gropengießer, I. / Gropengießer, H. (1985): Gesunde Schule. UB 9, Gropengießer, I. / Gropengießer, H. (1985): Healthy School. UB 9, 106, and Gropengießer, I. (1990): Shaping a healthy school. In: Health. Friedrich annual booklet VIII. Seelze: Friedrich Verlag, S School health education and health promotion (2000) 11

14 health concept 11. Both approaches are based on a dynamic and holistic concept of health. The first concept in particular sees the school not only as a place where education is conveyed, but also as a living space for the students (and the adults involved) in which a lifestyle that maintains and promotes health can develop. It is necessary to design the school living space and workplace in line with this concept. 12 The holistic concept intends to consistently include the whole person with their affective, social, pragmatic and cognitive personality traits in the didactics of health education (...). 13 The setting approach is based on comparable ideas. This is about changes to the school as a whole: about changes in teaching, school life and the school environment with the aim of holistically promoting the health of all people teaching, learning and otherwise active in school. The setting approach forms the basis for the concept of the health promoting school. It was also tested in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1993 to 1997 in a Europe-wide pilot project network health promoting schools 14 and will be continued in 15 federal states until 2000 under the name OPUS (Open Participation Network and School Health). These concepts have so far only been tested in the form of models. An offensive on the part of the cultural administrations for their nationwide implementation is currently not discernible. Possible changes in the school could arise in the future against the background of school development processes or school profile development, which are currently suggested by some federal states 11 Staeck, L. (1990): Gesundheitserbildung heute. Overcoming traditional concepts. In: Health. Friedrich Annual Issue VIII. Seelze: Friedrich Verlag, S and Hedewig, R. (1991): The discrepancy between knowledge and action in health behavior causes and ways of overcoming them. BioS 40, 3, cf. Eschenhagen, D. et al. (²1993): Fachdidaktik Biologie. Cologne. 13 Staeck, L. (1990), op. Cit., S Cf. Meierjürgen, R. (1997): Health promotion in the network of health-promoting schools. Healthcare CONCEPTS 2

15 CONCEPTS.The focus here is on health promotion as one of several possibilities. When implementing and realizing all of the concepts presented, it is necessary to support the schools accordingly. In view of increasing educational demands, combined with a progressive reduction in the number of teachers and an increase in the number of compulsory lessons, the cultural administrations, school supervisory authorities and school authorities must first create the financial, personnel and organizational framework conditions for the required redesign of the school. School health education and health promotion (2000) 13

16 3 Previous measures of the BZgA for school health education In the past, the BZgA has contributed numerous media and measures to support school health education. The central element was the series Health Education and School (G + S) founded in 1975. As part of this series, the Federal Center continues to produce teaching materials on the basic topics of health education for all school types and levels. The preparation of the teaching materials always takes place in coordination with the education ministers and school senators of the federal states, who also agree to the distribution to the schools. All relevant schools receive the materials free of charge. In addition, they are distributed by Ernst Klett Verlag. The teaching materials are primarily used for teaching health education to be carried out by teachers. They contain modular offers for continuous health education in the sense of the spiral curriculum. Where possible, they can be used in interdisciplinary lessons, but also in specialist lessons. The teacher selects the parts they want for their lessons from the materials. Lesson preparation requires only a minimum of time, because all materials contain factual information with technical facts, design proposals for lessons that have been successfully tried and tested in school practice, as well as media that are suggested for use in lessons 14 CONCEPTS 2

17 CONCEPTS (e.g. slides, games, posters). The majority of the enclosed media is intended for the students to process themselves (e.g. worksheets, games, questionnaires, puzzles). All teaching materials also contain information on how to work with parents. As a working basis for the series of publications, curriculum analyzes and evaluations of health-related decrees have been and are regularly carried out. Evaluations of the teaching materials took place in 1978 and 1986. On the basis of selected topics and with the participation of the federal states, further training events for multipliers of teacher training have been and will be carried out regularly in the future. School health education and health promotion (2000) 15

18 4Perspectives of the BZgA for school health education and health promotion The circumstances described in the initial situation (Chapter 2) make it necessary to rethink the BZgA's approach to school health education and to update the goals and topics. 4.1 Objectives The overriding objective for all measures in the school area is to strengthen the health literacy of children and adolescents. This should be done by imparting health-related knowledge, the motivation for health-promoting behavior, the practice of health-friendly behavior. Teachers must therefore be enabled to teach independent and responsible health action. At school, they have the task of imparting subject-specific knowledge, demonstrating the importance of healthy behavior and health-promoting conditions, practicing health-promoting measures, 16 CONCEPTS 2

19 CONCEPTS to promote the understanding of the connection between the accomplishment of development tasks and health and to support the assessment and judgment competence for the perception of health-promoting offers. 4.2 Topic The central topic areas of the BZgA are also significant for the field of action schools: AIDS education, addiction prevention and sex education. In addition, other topics are becoming increasingly important: avoiding stress, coping with stress, recognizing and resolving conflicts, preventing environmentally-related diseases (including noise damage, allergies, skin cancer), preventing infectious diseases (e.g. hepatitis B), promoting healthy eating habits, avoiding accidents, dealing with chronically ill, promotion of non-smoking, prevention of drug abuse / doping. The current curricula provide the necessary legitimation for all of the above-mentioned areas. School health education and health promotion (2000) 17

20 5Implementation strategies If measures for the realization of the goals are to be successful, then they must take into account the presented starting position, in particular the institutional conditions of the school. However, they must also be designed in such a way that they support the development of a health-promoting way of life in school, in which the children and young people can optimally develop their individual possibilities and develop health-related skills in a comprehensive sense (school as a workplace). In addition, the school as a place of learning must be included, because in order to strengthen the health literacy of children and adolescents, it is essential to impart knowledge and knowledge about basic as well as current health topics. With its measures, the BZgA initially addresses the teachers (multipliers) who have direct access to the children and young people in the school. The multipliers can impart health-related knowledge and behavior and integrate it into everyday school life. They are therefore of great importance for the development of health-relevant attitudes and behavior in the target group. The BZgA therefore designs media and measures that provide teachers with help and suggestions in coping with their curriculum-based health education tasks within the subject class or in the interdisciplinary approach. The media and measures are designed in such a way that they impart knowledge and skills to the pupils in the course of lessons, but also offer supportive accompaniment and competence promotion in the development and change of attitudes and behavior. 18 CONCEPTS 2

21 CONCEPTS Finally, the BZgA will also stimulate the discussion about the school as a workplace and develop specific suggestions for teaching, project days and project weeks that support the idea of ​​a healthy school. A particularly topical topic that can be implemented in any subject is the promotion of social behavior among children and young people. A lack of social skills is a major cause of the increasingly common aggression in school (inside and outside of class) as well as in the leisure sector. A training program to be developed that enables children and adolescents to recognize tensions and conflicts at an early stage and to develop and practice ways of avoiding or coping with them (e.g. with the help of conflict games) is intended to strengthen the social skills of children and adolescents become. This helps to improve the social climate and reduce aggression. In addition, other topics are important, which can only be mentioned here as examples. They can be developed in specialist classes as well as in the context of projects. The possible specialist connection is added in brackets: Practicing techniques for coping with stress, e.g. Relaxation, concentration and movement exercises (biology, sport, social studies), attractive classroom design (any subject), implementation of a week of healthy eating (biology, housekeeping), preparation of healthy snacks (biology, housekeeping, social studies), development of suggestions for the active break including the design of break rooms with rest and play areas (biology, technology / works, sport), redesign of the school yard, possibly combined with noise-reducing measures (biology, physics, geography, technology / works), school health education and health promotion ( 2000) 19

22 back school (biology, sport, community studies), addiction prevention projects (biology, community studies, religion / ethics). When creating all school materials, the BZgA uses tried and tested didactic concepts and methodological strategies, which can be subsumed under the terms such as student orientation, learning through experience, action orientation and reference to the real world. 20 CONCEPTS 2

23 CONCEPTS 6 Media and measures 6.1 Media for teaching The health literacy of children and adolescents must be promoted in an age-appropriate manner and in accordance with the development phases. The BZgA therefore develops target-group-appropriate teaching materials for schools that ensure continuous health education and promotion in all types of schools, beginning early (in elementary school age) and through to adolescence (until the end of compulsory schooling). With an expanded range of media, the BZgA will support teachers in their health education tasks even more than before. BZgA series of publications on health education and schools (G + S) The teaching materials from the G + S series that have been produced so far are enjoyed by teachers to a high degree acceptance, because they take into account the current curricula, they are approved by the education ministers and school senators of the federal states for use in lessons, they only contain teaching suggestions that have already been tried out several times in practice during the creation, they enable the teachers to carry out professional training and they make lesson preparation easier. With this series of publications, the BZgA has created an opportunity to share tried and tested ideas, suggestions and concepts from health, school health education and health promotion (2000) 21

24 education and support in all schools nationwide uniformly. There is no comparable offer for this in the Federal Republic of Germany. The BZgA will therefore not do without this important and well-known instrument in the future. In order to ensure that the materials can be used in the planning and implementation of lessons in the future, they must be continuously revised or redesigned. The BZgA will use newer didactic drafts such as Consider gender-specific approaches in health education or project work, as well as the aforementioned efforts to make schools health-promoting. A large number of attractive media are intended to motivate students to deal with the proposed topics in the classroom. Bundling of media. Appropriate media are to be increasingly used in schools in the form of media packages. Ideally, they consist of a film, accompanying film material and a teacher's handout with student material and information for parents. In this way, a topic can be worked on in several and different teaching situations and / or subjects. Such an attractive media network should increase the willingness of teachers to work on health-related topics in the classroom. The student materials should not only be informative, but they should be designed in such a way that the students show them or make them available to their classmates from other study groups. In this way, the pupils become multipliers and contribute to making the material known and disseminating it within the school. In the case of particularly suitable topics, it should be checked whether specially designed media can be used to establish peer approaches in schools beyond the classroom. Possible forms of work within the schools are: Peer Education (clarification and upbringing) and Peer Projects (group projects such as theater, shows, animation, parcours). 22 CONCEPTS 2

25 CONCEPTS New Media The changed media landscape and the efforts of the school supervisory authorities and school authorities to anchor media such as personal computers and the Internet in schools are confronting everyone involved with health education with new tasks, but also opening up noteworthy opportunities. The Internet and CD-ROM create the prerequisites for fast data access, independent research in databases and the use of interactive self-learning programs in schools. In this way, they enable teaching methods that involve the students more intensively than conventional lessons and encourage them to be more proactive. The efficiency of teaching, including health education, could be significantly increased as a result. Unfortunately, not all teachers have their own PC and only a few have a home internet connection, i.e. the new media will probably not be able to replace the print media in the short and medium term. In order to encourage the willingness to use new media in the classroom, teachers need to be shown their advantages and possibilities. The advantages of working with the new media are to be made clear to them, didactic reasons for the new media are to be provided, methodological procedures to be explained using examples, and the possibilities of integrating new media into the traditional forms and procedures of teaching are to be clearly demonstrated. In contrast, the students are largely familiar with the new media and highly motivated to work with them. Providing them with an attractive, interactive medium means for the learning process: independent learning, project orientation, cooperation and teamwork, interdisciplinary forms of work and learning, promotion of interdisciplinary thinking, school health education and health promotion (2000) 23

26 individual approach with regard to learning pace and learning content, review of one's own actions and deriving action strategies. In the context of lessons, it is important that there is a constant change between self-learning phases (with the new media) and social phases, because social integration and social learning will continue to be important learning goals in the school in the future can only be implemented in schools if the BZgA actually reaches the teachers with its materials. In the past, especially in large schools, it was often possible to detect wastage when sending teaching materials. Although up to five copies were sent to the schools, the specialist teachers responsible for health education could not always be reached. In order to exclude or minimize wastage in the future, the BZgA will initially provide teachers with a special function (chairpersons or department heads, health officers or school principals) with a sample copy and brochures (leaflets, posters) with which the other colleagues will be informed should. If necessary, additional copies of the media can then be requested from the BZgA. In addition, in future the official gazettes of the federal states will refer to all new teaching materials, and the BZgA will also advertise the materials in high-circulation specialist magazines. 15 Cf. Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Culture of the Federal States (ed.) (1997): New media and telecommunications in education. Media education in school. Bonn. 24 CONCEPTS 2

27 CONCEPTS 6.2 Measures The changed spectrum of illnesses in children and adolescents, but also the formative influence of parents and legal guardians on health behavior make further, supportive measures for the school sector appear sensible enable health topics for school. The aim is to correct the teachers 'lack of information and to provide them with help so that they can react appropriately to pupils' initiatives or problems. The BZgA plans measures such as the targeted distribution of short didactic handouts to schools, publications in high-circulation educational specialist magazines or the dispatch of health newsletters with instructions for teaching implementation Involvement of the parents The family, in particular the parents or the legal guardian, is funded the health of children and adolescents plays a central role. As shown in section, the family influences the child at an age when habits are developed and established. Effective school health education and promotion must therefore take these influences into account. It should take up the family experiences of the pupils (reference to the real world), and it should try to involve the parents or legal guardians in the school measures for health education and promotion. In the future, the BZgA will take both aspects into account when creating its teaching media. School health education and health promotion (2000) contained 25

28 materials from the G + S series of publications have already provided information on parents 'work in the past, but these were mainly suggestions for organizing parents' evenings at school. These suggestions will also be an integral part of the teaching media in the future, because such school events are usually attended by all parents of primary school children. In order to deepen the accompanying work with parents, the BZgA will in future create special media for parents and legal guardians (brochures, leaflets, copy templates, etc.). A sample copy of these parent media is attached to the teaching materials, the teachers can request the required number of copies from the BZgA and distribute them at the parents' evening. Experience has shown that many parents are less interested in attending parents' evenings during their school days. Via the parent media that the teachers give the pupils home with them, these parents can also be involved in the school health education and promotion Qualification: Teacher training and teacher training Teacher training Student teachers and prospective teachers are important contacts for the BZgA , because they are particularly open to new topics and media, they have a high need for media and materials that offer them ideas and professional help in planning and implementing lessons and they act as multipliers in the school / university by promoting Disseminate the materials and media. For these reasons, the BZgA will increasingly offer its teaching media to universities and study and training seminars in the future. The current addresses of the training 26 CONCEPTS 2

29 CONCEPTS seminars are provided by the education ministers and school senators of the federal states. In-service training for teachers In principle, the relevant institutes in the federal states are responsible for further training for teachers. In the past, the BZgA held seminars for multipliers from teacher training, especially in the new federal states. The multipliers were familiarized with different didactic problems in health education using examples from teaching materials. Events of this kind will continue to be held in the future and the federal states will contribute to the costs. In addition, the BZgA will involve the health officers who are available in many school districts. With its measures for teacher training, the BZgA will also address the teachers themselves. In view of the changed spectrum of diseases affecting children and adolescents, there is an increased need for information and education. Many teachers feel that they are technically overwhelmed or are unable to deal adequately with sick or chronically ill students due to a lack of information. Often they are not even aware of the advice centers or self-help groups in the immediate vicinity. A guideline for dealing with chronically ill children in school will be an important contribution to teacher training. In particular, the class teachers should be better informed with regard to the following questions: Are there sick or even chronically ill children in my class? What should be considered in everyday school life? In which cases is it necessary to inform the classmates? Which advice centers or self-help groups are available to me or the class in the area? What services do the counseling centers provide? Which self-help groups can serve as contact persons? School health education and health promotion (2000) 27

30 The BZgA will make the relevant information available to the teachers in print media. The directories on the type and performance of the advice centers and self-help groups should be made available on the Internet in the medium term and continuously updated. Health advice Many children and young people do not, or only reluctantly, go to the doctor despite a need for information, complaints or illnesses. Especially among 12 to 18 year olds, the inhibition thresholds for visiting a practice are very high. Health advice offers by doctors in the school or in the area close to the school, as described in an expertise 16 commissioned by the BMG, could provide a remedy here. Such offers will only be effective if they are continuously available and can be integrated into the organizational framework of the school in the long term. Finally, it is necessary to create a coherent financing concept for the advisory services. The BZgA will first evaluate the various existing experiences of the federal states with health counseling offers in order to then formulate guidelines and quality criteria for the realization of such counseling centers in a second step Health education. Numerous institutions offer a vast variety of media and materials for health education classes in schools. In the future, the BZgA will prepare 16 Prognos Cologne (1997): Situation of health advice in adolescents. On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. Cologne. 28 CONCEPTS 2

31 CONCEPTS take into account topic-specific, nationwide market overviews, because market overviews create transparency by making deficits, but also oversupply, visible. If the market overviews are finally evaluated for the schools and made available to them, then they can offer the teachers important help in finding out about the available offers and in making a selection that is appropriate to the target group. Market overviews for the school sector only make sense if the individual materials and media are available nationwide and their quality has been checked. The following questions play a decisive role: Do the materials provide the teachers with sufficient factual information? Does the technical content correspond to the latest scientific findings? Are the suggestions for teaching age-appropriate? For which target group (also type of school) are they suitable? Are there media available that enable the subject to be implemented in the classroom? Does the proposed measure correspond to the valid principles of health education and promotion (imparting knowledge, motivation for health-promoting behavior, practicing health-friendly behavior)? Do the media and teaching measures comply with the current didactic and methodological principles? Have the media and measures been evaluated? The media and materials for the school sector that meet the quality criteria mentioned should be clearly arranged for the teachers in a brochure or, in the medium term, on the Internet. In this way, the BZgA can help ensure that high-quality teaching materials and media are more widely distributed. School health education and health promotion (2000) 29

32 7Cooperation and quality assurance If health education and promotion are to be successful, it needs close cooperation with the specialist sciences. In addition to the results of expert reports and studies on the target group, specialist knowledge and tried and tested innovative ways and methods in didactics must flow into the development of all media and measures. A special cooperation relationship arises with the federal states in accordance with the federal principle. Because of the cultural sovereignty mentioned at the beginning, they are the central partners in all intended measures for health education in schools. The mutual exchange of information and the knowledge of country-specific measures in the context of school health education and health promotion (e.g. the state institutes for teacher training) create the necessary transparency in terms of a needs assessment (also to avoid duplication) and the basis for the subsequent planning and implementation of nationwide projects. The central cooperation partners for all measures in school health education and promotion are the teachers (multipliers), who have direct access to the target group. 14.5 million schoolchildren can be reached through the approximately 14,500,000 teachers. There are other collaborations with partners inside and outside the health care system. In its teaching media, the BZgA is making schools more aware of the possibility of including local residents. 30 CONCEPTS 2

33 CONCEPTS to associations and organizations (e.g. addiction counseling centers, AIDS counseling centers, self-help associations, support services, Pro Familia). The addresses are to be made available to teachers via the Internet. In terms of quality assurance, it will be necessary in the future to evaluate the media and measures of the BZgA for school health education more intensively than before. The focus here is on the following questions: Do the media and measures reach the teachers? Is the litter path efficient? Are the media (print media, CD-ROM, Internet) used by the teachers? Is the factual information sufficient with regard to your own lesson preparation? Are the media and measures suitable for achieving the stated intentions and goals? Are there sufficient offers for accompanying parent work? Do the teachers have suggestions or requests for improvement? The answers to these questions are an essential prerequisite for the development of guidelines and quality criteria for teaching materials and media; But they are also important because the health education in the school intervention field is provided by the multipliers. This means that all measures and media for the target group of pupils must be designed in such a way that they first meet with the acceptance of the multipliers. Aspects such as connection to the curriculum, practicability, expediency, student orientation and attractiveness play a decisive role here. Measures for school health education and promotion will ultimately only be implemented in schools if they adequately take into account the needs of the multipliers. The BZgA will in particular exercise its cooperative function by organizing the exchange of information and experience and through a division of labor approach in the implementation of measures. School health education and health promotion (2000) 31

34 Outlook 8 The present concept contains a broad representation of the entire field of work in school health education and health promotion. Given the available capacities, priorities must be set in the annual work programs. The focus for the next two years will be as follows: market overviews of media and materials for school, evaluation of the distribution channels, development of materials for Internet use, development of materials to promote solidarity in dealing with chronically ill children in school, testing of Opportunities to establish health advice offers in schools, preparation of materials for the prevention of environmentally-related diseases (e.g. damage from noise). 32 CONCEPTS 2

35 Media selection on the subject of children and young people A number of other materials are available from the Federal Center for Health Education on the subject of children and young people. Below you will find a selection of these publications, which can be requested free of charge by quoting the respective order number. Order address: BZgA, Cologne, or via the Internet Overview: Health of children and adolescents Detailed media overview. Order number: Concepts: Framework concept for sex education for young people Order number: Concept 1: Health for children and young people Order number: Concept 3: Health promotion and health education in kindergarten Order number: (in preparation) Specialized series of research and practice in health promotion Volume 2: Gender-related addiction prevention Order number: Volume 3: Children's health Epidemiological basics Order number: Volume 11: Protection or risk? Family environments as reflected in the communication between parents and their children Order number: Specialized series of research and practice in sex education and family planning Volume 1: Sexual educational work with boys Order number: Volume 4: Guidelines and curricula for sex education Order number: Volume 5: Sexual educational work with girls Order number: Volume 9: Sexual educational concepts Order number : Text U-3

36 BZgA Federal Center for Health Education ISBN