What are 8 new math symbols

List of mathematical characters (HTML, LaTeX, Unicode)

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Below you will find mathematical characters (special characters) that are often needed but are missing on the keyboard, with their HTML code, Unicode and as LateX characters. Simply copy it out and paste it into Word or a website.

Most frequently used characters

If you are looking for the most commonly used characters, you can copy them out here:

Greek letters

To copy (alpha to omega):

small:

large:

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
alpha α α \alpha
alpha Α Α \Alpha
beta β β \beta
beta Β Β \Beta
gamma γ γ \gamma
gamma Γ Γ \Gamma
delta δ δ \delta
delta Δ Δ \Delta
epsilon ε ε \ varepsilon
epsilon Ε Ε \Epsilon
zeta ? ζ \ zeta
Zeta ? Ζ \ Zeta
eta ? η \ eta
Eta & Eta; Η \ Eta
theta ? θ \ theta
Theta ? Θ \ Theta
iota ? ι \ iota
Iota ? Ι \ Iota
kappa & kappa; κ \ kappa
Kappa & Kappa; Κ \ Kappa
lambda ? λ \ lambda
Lambda ? Λ \ Lambda
must & mu; μ \ mu
Mu & Mu; Μ \ Mu
nu & nu; ν \ nu
Nu & Nu; Ν \ Nu
xi ? ξ \ xi
Xi ? Ξ \ Xi
omicron ? ο \ omicron
Omicron & Omicron; Ο \ Omicron
pi π π \pi
pi Π Π \Pi
rho & rho; ρ \ rho
Rho & Rho; Ρ \ Rho
sigma ? σ \ sigma
Sigma ? Σ \ Sigma
dew &dew; τ \dew
dew &Dew; Τ \Dew
upsilon & upsilon; υ \ upsilon
Upsilon & Upsilon; Υ \ Upsilon
phi ? φ \ varphi
Phi ? Φ \ Phi
chi ? χ \ chi
Chi & Chi; Χ \ Chi
psi ? ψ \ psi
Psi ? Ψ \ Psi
omega ω ω \omega
omega Ω Ω \Omega
sigmaf & sigmaf; ς \ varsigma
thetasym ? ϑ \ vartheta
upsih & upsih; ϒ \ Upsilon
piv & piv; ϖ \ varpi

General math symbols

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Amount sign -- -- |
Standard characters -- -- ||
small Latin f with hook (...) & fnof; ƒ f
Circle number Pi π π \pi
Euler's number e e e e
Golden ratio Phi ? φ \ varphi
Imaginary unit i i i i
round (rounding symbol) & asymp; ≈ \ approx
plus-minus plus-minus ± ± \ pm
minus-plus minus plus ∓ ࢥ \ mp
multiplied / times multiplication sign × x × \ times
divided / by division sign ? ÷ \ div
to the power of one ? ¹ ^1
to the power of two (square) & sup2; ² ^2
to the power of three (cubic) & sup3; ³ ^3
a half and a half ? ½ \ frac12
a quarter & frac14; ¼ \ frac14
three quarters & frac34; ¾ \ frac34
Center point · \ cdot
Ellipsis (three dots) & hellip; … \ ldots
angle & ang; ∠ \ angle
Rhombus ? ◊ \ lozenge
Diamond sign & diams; ♦ \ blacklozenge
Spades sign & spades; ♠ \ spadesuit
Cross sign & Clubs; ♣ \ clubsuit
Heart sign & hearts; ♥ \ heartsuit
Degree ° ° \ circ
Per mille ? & # 137; or & # 8240; \ permil
Average & Oslash; Ø \O
Bullet sign & bull; • \ bullet
Minute sign & prime; ′ '
Second sign & Prime; ″ ''
Overline & oline; ‾ -
Fraction line & frasl; ⁄ /
Weierstrasse p & weierp; ℘ \ wp
Character for imaginary part ℑ \In the
Sign for real part ℜ \Re
Euro sign &Euro; € \Euro
Alef symbol (first finite atomic number) & alefsym; ℵ \ aleph
Micro signs & micro; µ \ mu
Negation (negative sign) (negation) & not; ¬ \ lnot
Macron & macr; ¯ \bar{}
Gr. P, represented in a script font = Weierstrassian P function & weierpv; ℘ \ wp
gr. I Fraktur = imaginary part of a number ℑ \In the
gr. R Fraktur = real part of a number ℜ \Re
Reduced Plank's quantum of action -- ħ \ hbar

Exponents and subscripts

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
deep 0 ₀ ^0
high 0 ⁰ ^0
deep 1 ₁ _1
to the power of 1 ? ¹ ^1
deep 2 ₂ _2
^ 2 & sup2; ² ^2
deep 3 ₃ _3
to the power of 3 & sup3; ³ ^3
deep 4 ₄ _4
to the power of 4 ⁴ ^4
deep 5 ₅ _5
to the power of 5 ⁵ ^5
deep 6 ₆ _6
to the power of 6 ⁶ ^6
deep 7 ₇ _7
to the power of 7 ⁷ ^7
deep 8 ₈ _8
to the power of 8 ⁸ ^8
deep 9 ₉ _9
to the power of 9 ⁹ ^9
deep + ₊ _+
high + ⁺ ^+
deep - ₋ _-
high - ⁻ ^-
deep = ₌ _=
high = ⁼ ^=
deep ( ₍ _(
deep ) ₎ _)
high ( ⁽ ^(
high ) ⁾ ^)

Sets of numbers

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Natural numbers -- ℕ \ mathbb {N}
Natural numbers including zero -- ℕ₀ \ mathbb {N} _0
Whole numbers -- ℤ \ mathbb {Z}
Rational numbers -- ℚ \ mathbb {Q}
Real numbers -- ℝ \ mathbb {R}
Complex numbers -- ℂ \ mathbb {C}
Transcendent numbers
Not an established sign
-- -- \ mathbb {T}
Prime numbers -- ℙ \ mathbb {P}
Quaternions -- ℍ \ mathbb {H}
Base amount -- 𝔾 \ mathbb {G}
Algebraic numbers -- 𝔸 \ mathbb {A}

Arrows

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Arrow down-bend-left ? ↵
Left arrow ? ← \ leftarrow
arrow to the right → \ to, \ rightarrow
Left-Right Arrow & harr; ↔ \ leftrightarrow
up arrow & uarr; ↑ \ uparrow
Down arrow & darr; ↓ \ downarrow
Left double arrow & lArr; ⇐ \ Leftarrow
Right double arrow (implication) & rArr; ⇒ \ Rightarrow
Left-right double arrow (equivalence) & hArr; ⇔ \ Leftrightarrow
Double arrow down & dArr; ⇓ \ Downarrow
Double arrow up & uArr; ⇑ \ Uparrow
Quotation marks to the left (can also be used as a double arrow) & laquo; « \ guillemotleft
Quotation marks to the right (can also be used as a double arrow) & raquo; » \ guillemotright

Further arrow symbols:

Brackets

The first six brackets can be found directly on the keyboard: hold + and then press,, or.

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Opening round bracket ( \ left (
Closing round brackets ) \ right)
Opening square bracket [ \ left [
Closing square brackets ] \ right]
Opening curly bracket { \{
Closing curly bracket } \}
Bracket at the bottom left & lfloor; ⌊ \ llcorner
Bracket right below & rfloor; ⌋ \ lrcorner
Bracket top left & lceil; ⌈ \ ulcorner
Bracket on the top right & rceil; ⌉ \ urcorner
angle bracket left & langle; or & long; ⟨ \ langle
right angle bracket & rangle; or & rang; ⟩ \ rangle

Operators (partly relations)

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
for all & forall; ∀ \ forall
partially (also partial differential) ∂ \ partial
exists (there is) & exist; ∃ \ exists
empty (empty quantity) ? ∅ \ emptyset
nabla (nabla function) & nabla; ∇ \ nabla
Element of ? ∈ \in
no element of & notin; ∉ \ not \ in
contains as an element ? ∋ \ ni
Product (product mark) & prod; ∏ \ prod
Sum (sum sign) & sum; ∑ \ sum
minus (minus sign) − -
Asterisk (star operator) & lowast; ∗ *
Root (square root) ? √ \ sqrt {}
proportional to & prop; ∝ \ propto
infinite ? ∞ \ infty
and (logical and) (conjunction) & and; ∧ \ wedge
or (logical or) (disjunction) & or; ∨ \ vee
Intersection & cap; ∩ \ cap
Unity & cup; ∪ \ cup
integral & int; ∫ \ int
therefore because of that) & there4; ∴ \ therefore
equals sign ≙ ϖ \ stackrel {\ wedge} {=}, \ hat {=}
similar to (tilde operator) & sim; ∼ \ sim
approximately equal (approximately equal) & cong; ≅ \ cong
almost the same (asymptotically to) & asymp; ≈ \ approx
unequal (not equal) & ne; ≠ \ neq
defined as ≔ & # x2254; \ coloneqq
identical with & equiv; ≡ \ equiv
less than or equal to ? ≤ \ leq
greater or equal ? ≥ \ geq
Subset (subset) of & sub; ⊂ \ subset
Superset of & sup; ⊃ \ supset
not a subset of & nsub; ⊄ \ not \ subset
Subset of or equal to ? ⊆ \ subseteq
Superset of or equal to ? ⊇ \ supseteq
Direct sum (direct sum) & oplus; ⊕ \ oplus
Vector product & otimes; ⊗ \ otimes
perpendicular to (orthogonal to) & perp; ⊥ \ perp
Point operator & sdot; ⋅ \ cdot

Mathematical accents

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
a with circumflex & acirc; â has a
a with tilde & atilde; ã \ tilde a
a with an acute accent & aacute; á \ acute a
a with accent grave & agrave; à \ grave a
a with period & adot;1 ȧ \ dot a
a with colon (Trema / Diärese) & auml; ä \ ddot a
a with brevis (abbreviation) & abreve;1 ă \ breve a
a with line & abar;1 ā \ bar a
a with arrow (vector) & avec;1 & # 8407; a \ vec a
a with ring & aring; å
a with Ogonek -- ą \ k {a}
a with point below -- ạ \ underaccent {\ dot} {a}

1 may not be displayed as HTML, then use the Unicode variant.

Apostrophes and quotation marks

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Apostrophe (typographically correct) & # x2019;
Replacement character for the apostrophe & # x0027;
Ejective mark (IPA) & # x02BC;
Stress Mark (IPA) & # x02C8;
Acute & # x00B4;
Grave accent & # x0060;
Single closing quote & # x2018;
Prime, foot, minute of arc & # x2032;
Rotated apostrophe & # x02BB;
Double quotation marks English “ ” & # x201C; & # x201D;
Quotation marks english single ‘ ’ & # x2018; & # x2019;
Quotation marks French Christmas trees « » & # x00AB; & # x00BB;
Quotation marks German paws „ “ & # x201E; & # x201C;
Polish quotes „ ” & # x00BB; & # x00AB;
Quotation marks Swedish backwards » « & # x201C; & # x201D;
Double universal quotes " " & # x0022; & # x0022;

Smileys and other symbols

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
Smiley face bright -- ☺
Smiley face dark -- ☻
sunshine -- ☼
female gender (Venus symbol) -- ♀ \ female
male gender (Mars symbol) -- ♂ \times
single music note -- ♪ \ textmusicalnote
double music note -- ♫
Right hook & check; ✓ \ checkmark
Copyright sign & copy; © \copyright
Trademark sign & trade; ™ \ textregistered

More symbols

Letters with a point above / below

Unicode numbers overlined / underlined

Numbers that are overlined and underlined can only be generated with “combining characters”. So you combine two Unicode characters and create an underscore or overline with the number.

A monospace font such as Courier New should be used to ensure that the combined character is displayed properly.

Surname character HTML code Unicode latex
0 overlined ̅0 & # x305; 0 \ overline {0}
1 painted over ̅1 & # x305; 1 \ overline {1}
2 painted over ̅2 & # x305; 2 \ overline {2}
3 painted over ̅3 & # x305; 3 \ overline {3}
4 painted over ̅4 & # x305; 4 \ overline {4}
5 painted over ̅5 & # x305; 5 \ overline {5}
6 painted over ̅6 & # x305; 6 \ overline {6}
7 painted over ̅7 & # x305; 7 \ overline {7}
8 painted over ̅8 & # x305; 8 \ overline {8}
9 painted over ̅9 & # x305; 9 \ overline {9}
0 underlined ̲0 & # x332; 0 \ underline {0}
1 underlined ̲1 & # x332; 1 \ underline {1}
2 underlined ̲2 & # x332; 2 \ underline {2}
3 underlined ̲3 & # x332; 3 \ underline {3}
4 underlined ̲4 & # x332; 4 \ underline {4}
5 underlined ̲5 & # x332; 5 \ underline {5}
6 underlined ̲6 & # x332; 6 \ underline {6}
7 underlined ̲7 & # x332; 7 \ underline {7}
8 underlined ̲8 & # x332; 8 \ underline {8}
9 underlined ̲9 & # x332; 9 \ underline {9}

More combination unicode characters here.

Tip: Enter characters with the Alt key

You can also generate special characters by holding down the key and entering a number combination.

Here are the most helpful math ALT codes that should work on all computers:

  • → (long minus)
  • → (painting point)

The tips "How to write fractions correctly on the computer" should also be pointed out at this point.

Are you missing a character in the table? Then write to us!