Can a 9mm bullet kill a bear?

Projectile effect

This article deals with the effect of the individual projectiles, or with the effect of the various cartridges in the game, on the game. An overview and tips should be given as to which cartridge is suitable for which species and hunting situation.

As in real hunting life as well as in the game, the hunter's top priority is to kill the game as quickly as possible and without unnecessary agony (properly). In the ideal case, the piece falls on the spot. This results in numerous advantages, also for the shooter, such as the elimination of the often difficult and cumbersome search and a little less restlessness with the remaining game.

So one would think that the hunter always uses the strongest caliber available to him. However, this is not always, or only rarely, sensible, because at the same time the hunter makes further demands on the cartridge and its bullet effect:

  • Little game (meat from game) or the trophy in general should be destroyed, which is simulated in the game by the shooting score.
  • The cartridge or weapon should be easy to handle (e.g. a low recoil, low weight), which is symbolized in the game by e.g. the weight value.
  • The costs should remain moderate. Guns in stronger calibers usually cost more. Strong, large cartridges are also more expensive, but this is only noticed by guests who have to buy the ammunition themselves and do not get it for free, as is the case with members.

In addition, one should always adhere to the hunting rules in the Evergreen Hunting Reserve. Not every type of ammunition may be used for every animal (ethical hunt).

Model of projectile impact target ballistics [edit | Edit source]

In reality, the way a bullet works in the body of a game is a very complex matter. It depends on a great many different factors. A separate area of ​​ballistics has emerged: The Target ballistics.

Roughly speaking, a piece of game can be killed using two different mechanisms (often both mechanisms work together):

  • By a strong shock, caused by one or more projectiles hitting at the same time, which due to their shape and mass suddenly give off a particularly large amount of energy "blunt" to the body of the game, but not necessarily penetrate deeply and injure organs. The affected animal is usually in a bang. One example is the shotgun shot at birds.
  • By destroying vital organs with a bullet which, due to its shape and mass, penetrates deep into the body of the game or even shoots it through, but releases its energy more slowly. The piece can be in a bang, but a short to long escape is often observed, depending on which organ was hit. One example is the rifle shot at wild boars.

In order to understand reality and to reproduce it in such a simulator, for example, one uses simplified models that reproduce the facts as true to the original as possible. Of course, such models always have rough edges that you come across every now and then in the game. Some things don't always fit 100%.

In the simulator, a rough distinction is made between two different projectile effects (models), which are considered in more detail below.

The Penetration effect (Depth effect) describes how deep the bullet penetrates the body of the game and thus which organs are hit Shock or wounding effect describes the general damage that a bullet causes on its way through the body of the game.

With a projectile in the game, both of these effects always occur, but differently from projectile to projectile, or in different proportions.

Penetration or depth effect [edit | Edit source]

The penetration effect is understood here as the ability of a bullet to penetrate the body of the game. How deep the bullet penetrates depends on many factors: Among other things, which material was shot at (bone, meat ...), the shape and mass of the bullet and the distance from which it was fired.

The following applies to the game: If a vital organ is hit, the animal is doomed to die. The more and the more important organs have been hit, the worse it looks for the animal. Bullets with a high penetration effect score points because they may injure many organs (e.g. two instead of one lungs) and thus cause rapid death.

The decisive factor here is the cross-sectional load on the projectile, i.e. how much mass loads the cross-sectional area of ​​the projectile. High cross-sectional loads are associated with, for example, low air resistance and high penetration capacity in the target medium (e.g. the body of the game). However, high cross-sectional loads also mean that the projectile cannot accelerate more poorly in the course of the weapon (lower muzzle velocity) and that its energy is poorly released into the body of the game due to the small cross-sectional area. The Shock or wounding effect (more on this below) is significantly lower than for floors with a low cross-sectional load.

So if you have a projectile with a high cross-sectional load, you also get a good penetration effect. This means that the bullet penetrates deep into the body of the game with comparatively little energy. On a relatively long path in the body, however, the energy is only released moderately well, i.e. the shock or wounding effect is limited. With such bullets it is therefore very important that you aim as precisely as possible and hit vital organs. If you manage to do this, the stopping effect is often good and the game will quickly succumb to its injuries.

For the hunter, this means the following: Projectiles with a high cross-sectional load are very accurate, as the ballistics are comparatively little noticeable due to the low air resistance and can therefore still be hit very well at over 200 m. At the same time you should pay attention to the exact position of the hit. Because if you do not hit well, the low shock or wounding effect causes very little damage to the game and it survives or only falls after an often very long search. If you hit well, with high projectile energies, bones can be shot through and many vital organs are severely injured, which leads to a very quick, sometimes immediate death of the animal. This strong penetration effect remains even at very large distances, as little energy is lost due to the low air resistance. With weapons that shoot such projectiles (with high energy) you can shoot through bones to more than 200 m without problems and injure vital organs, i.e. kill game quickly.

How strong the penetration effect is of course depends very much on the Bullet energy from! Arrows, for example, are classic projectiles that have a very, very high cross-sectional load (the entire high weight loads the thin, sharp (knife) blades of the arrowhead (= small "cross-sectional area")). A very high penetration effect and weak ballistics would therefore be expected. However, the projectile energy is usually very low with less than 100J (other rifles in the game easily manage> 2000J). Therefore, arrows have strong ballistics and a rather moderate penetration effect. But compared to the very low projectile energy, the ballistic performance and the penetration effect are extremely good. No other type of ammunition like the arrows can get so much ballistic performance and penetration out of so little energy. E.g. the projectile of a .30-06 cartridge would hardly do any damage with only 100J. Therefore the arrows, which cause damage to the game almost exclusively through the penetration effect, are quite interesting and at least at short distances alternatives to e.g. the rifle projectiles if you don't want to shoot through bones.

So it is always important to keep an eye on the projectile energy.

Shock or wounding effect (general damage) [edit | Edit source]

This effect describes the general damage that a bullet causes on its way through the body of the game.

Some examples:

  • The bullet hits first (or only) muscle, fat or connective tissue (body hit): Now the shock or wounding effect decides how great the damage is. You can almost imagine a "life bar" for every animal, from which the damage is deducted. If the damage is already so great that the whole "life bar" is used up, the animal is dead on the spot, so it is in a bang. One example is the shotgun shot at birds. The shock or wounding effect of a scrap metal hit is sufficient to kill the bird on the spot if it is well seated and close at hand.
  • If the animal does not die immediately when it hits the body, the penetration effect decides how far the bullet penetrates the body of the game. In the case of a shotgun, the penetration effect is bad and on a small deer it can be so bad that the projectiles cannot penetrate to another organ. This means that there is no further damage and the animal will probably survive (please note the information below under "Additional information").
  • If the animal does not die immediately when it hits the body, the penetration effect decides how far the bullet penetrates the body of the game. In the case of a well-placed rifle shot, the penetration effect is good and the bullet penetrates to other organs. Now every organ hit is inflicted by the shock or wounding effect, a so-called damage per time. A certain amount of damage is always inflicted on the organ or the game itself at defined time intervals (the size of the damage depends on the strength of the shock or wounding effect of the bullet). Vividly speaking, something is constantly deducted from the "life bar" until it is finally used up, which means death for the animal. Because if you hit the lungs, for example, then the animal is not dead on the spot, but loses blood, for example, and becomes weaker and weaker until it dies. The following applies to the game: if you hit a vital organ, the animal always dies at some point. When, that depends on the organ and the shock or wounding effect of the bullet.

The strength of the shock or wounding effect is heavily dependent on the projectile, the distance and also the weapon. Here, too, the cross-sectional load is decisive. In the case of the penetration effect, it was a high cross-sectional load; in the case of the shock or wounding effect, it was a low cross-sectional load. Bullets of this type of action usually have a large cross-sectional area (large caliber) and can thus optimally transfer the bullet energy into the body of the game. The penetration effect of such bullets is definitely there, but often very bad. The ballistic performance is also usually not very good. The large cross-section of the bullet ensures a high level of air resistance and thus rapid braking (loss of energy and falling down). The mostly large projectiles are often slower and offer crosswinds good attack opportunities, which can lead to a sideways drift. The ballistics are therefore more pronounced, which means that ammunition that works in this way is not particularly well designed for long firing ranges, because it is simply no longer possible to aim precisely and a lot of energy is lost, which is necessary for a high shock or The wounding effect is essential. This shows that ammunition with this mode of action is particularly suitable for short distances.

The key to a high shock or wounding effect is to release as much projectile energy as possible into the body of the game, which is particularly successful with projectiles with a large cross-sectional area. This energy is absorbed by the wild body, which then deforms (it is destroyed). Bullets with a small cross-sectional area give off energy to the body of the game poorly, so they only destroy it a little, but get through it better (= high penetration effect). In some cases, so little energy is given off that it is rejected, meaning that there is still plenty of residual energy.

What does that mean in the game ?: Bullets that have a high bullet energy, a high impulse (is achieved by a lot of mass and speed) and a low cross-sectional load (these conditions usually apply to large calibers) are particularly characterized by good shock or Wounding effect. The high energy is quickly transferred to the body of the game and can cause considerable damage in large areas, but not always very deeply (rather lower penetration effect). From this it becomes clear that the hit position is still important here, but no longer as enormously important as with bullets with a high cross-sectional load. So it doesn't always have to be aimed that cleanly. Even simple body hits (no vital organs are hit, only e.g. muscles, bones ...) can be fatal on the spot, as the enormous force of the projectile destroys this tissue over a large area and can lead to a shock or trauma (also from e.g. in Nearby nerves (centers). A shot in the head, for example, without hitting the brain can be immediately fatal, since the enormous force can reach the brain and at least paralyze it, i.e. not immediately destroy it, otherwise the HunterMate would do it yes also show)).

This deadly effect, i.e. with only slight penetration of the game's body, is used, for example, with a lot of shot in the game. Pheasants do not have to be hit exactly in the heart etc. It is enough if enough shotgun pellets (low cross-sectional load) hit the animal with a certain force. In general, shotgun ammunition is a prime example of this type of effect. It is also known from hunting wild boar with rifle bullets: You do not have to hit exactly, even with "bad" hits the animals do not run far or often die from "simple" body hits on the spot. On the other hand, with the .300 Win Mag cartridge, for example, which also has a certain shock or wounding effect, but is more designed for penetration, you have to aim much more precisely, because bad hits can quickly lead to long searches.

In summary, one can say about the shock or wounding effect that this is particularly dependent on a high projectile energy, which can be achieved with massive, large calibers and a low cross-sectional load. This effect is only very strong at short and medium distances and does not require very precise aiming. So there is usually a very high stopping effect, which distinguishes such ammunition, or such weapons that use this ammunition, very well for driven hunts at short distances and for quick defense against dangerous and attacking game.

Additional notes [edit | Edit source]

  • The status of the animal's "life bar" can be easily understood (with the appropriate skill level) by examining traces of blood. Here percentages are given about the "health" of the animal. In the event of a lung hit, it is so easy to see how the health, i.e. the life bar, dwindles over time. It is different with a body hit that was survived by the game. Here something is vigorously withdrawn from the life bar and then no more (you will then no longer find any traces of blood and the animal will never die from this shot). The peeling can be divided into small "portions", which are usually peeled off one after the other within a few seconds. This explains why some animals only die a few seconds after being hit in the body.

In summary [edit | Edit source]

In summary, it can be said that there are two mechanisms of action that play "against each other": On the one hand, there are projectiles that achieve high penetration, i.e. can fatally injure an animal at almost any distance, but the piece does not necessarily fall into the ground immediately Bang (less stopping effect) and the shot should sit well. Such projectiles generally have a comparatively low wounding effect.

On the other hand, there are projectiles that have poor penetration and are therefore unsuitable for larger distances, but have a strong wounding effect and at short distances, without having to aim precisely at vital organs, can kill game on the spot and thus especially for moving Wild are suitable.

Most cartridges and arrows etc. lie between the two extremes described above and the hunter must choose wisely which cartridge etc. is most suitable for his purposes and choose it according to the situation. On the driven hunt he will probably use a different cartridge for the same game than when he is on the prowl.

Tips and help are now listed below.

Tips on choosing ammunition or examples of the effects on some cartridges Edit source]

The hunter deals with such topics so that he chooses the right cartridge, the right arrow, the right weapon, etc. for himself. But one thing can be said in advance: There is no such thing as the only correct cartridge / type of ammunition. You always have to decide for the respective situation, your own preferences and habits.

As mentioned above, these two effects always occur at the same time and differ from floor to floor. The aim here is to give an overview of how which storeys work, or how the two effects described above are noticeable on the individual storeys.

Shotgun ammunition Edit source]

This is usually characterized by a very high shock or wounding effect. Game is less killed by the penetration effect. You usually find very high stopping effects, but poor ballistic properties, which means that this ammunition should only be used at short distances of less than 50m.

Shotgun ammunition
12/76 bird haze
This is ammunition that is fired by shotguns. The very fine shot consists of more than 200 small pellets with a maximum diameter of 1.75 mm. This meal is therefore classified as significantly less powerful than the 12/76 items and is only approved for birds. But it is one of the best ammunition for bird hunting.

Due to the spherical shape, the individual balls are very "blunt" compared to the streamlined, pointed projectiles of the rifles. This gives us a very large cross-sectional area and a low cross-sectional load. With these properties one need not expect a great penetration effect. It is the same: The individual projectiles quickly get stuck in the target medium and only very rarely penetrate so deeply that vital organs are injured. This usually only happens at short shooting distances. Aiming at vital organs / weak points on the body of the game is almost superfluous.

At the same time, thanks to these properties, we have a very good shock and wounding effect. There are no rejects, i.e. all the energy, sometimes more than 2000 J, is absorbed by the target medium. The shotguns together are quite heavy (leads to a great impulse / great force) and they usually hit the body of the game at the same time. This massive impact on a large area (the pellets scatter a bit apart) causes a large (nerve) shock / trauma and the game is often dead on the spot or very rarely manages only a short escape.

Due to the poor aerodynamic shape (large cross-section), the lack of twist (caused by missing pulls in the barrel of the weapon) and the rather uncontrolled escape of the projectiles from the barrel of the weapon lead to very poor ballistic properties. The ammunition scatters very heavily and is therefore very imprecise, the projectiles fall off quickly and the good shock or wounding effect dissipates quickly with increasing distance. The effective range is already reached at 40 to 50 m (60 m). If you hit game that is even further away, it will probably not die from the shot, since the projectile effect is already too weak or, due to the strong dispersion, too few projectiles hit the target. You don't need to look for pheasants with such bad hits. There is also no admonition from the RangerDoc. For example, ducks can only be fatally injured up to a maximum of 75 m with this type of ammunition.

This ammunition is one of the best for fast moving, small game birds such as ducks, geese, pheasants and turkeys, but also for other small game such as rabbits. If you want to hunt game birds, you can hardly avoid this ammunition. It doesn't have to be precisely targeted. It is usually enough if the shot hits the animal. It is important that the distance remains short. Due to the strong dispersion, it is also possible to kill several animals that are standing / flying close together with one shot. Pheasants, for example, cannot be killed so easily in the air with any other type of ammunition. The game is usually immediately dead when hit. This means that you have no burden to look for.

This cartridge is a little stronger than the 20/76 bird haze, so it still offers some reserves and you can still kill game at greater distances.

12/76 items
This is ammunition that is fired by shotguns. This very coarse shot consists of a few (<10) pellets with a diameter of at least 4.5mm.

Due to the spherical shape, the individual balls are very "blunt" compared to the streamlined, pointed projectiles of the rifles. This gives us a very large cross-sectional area and a low cross-sectional load. With these properties one need not expect a great penetration effect. It is the same: The individual projectiles quickly get stuck in the target medium and only very rarely penetrate so deeply that vital organs are injured. This usually only happens at short shooting distances. Aiming at vital organs / weak points on the body of the game is almost superfluous.

At the same time, thanks to these properties, we have a very good shock and wounding effect. There are no rejects, i.e. all the energy, sometimes more than 2000J, is absorbed by the target medium. The shotgun pellets together have a very high weight (leads to a great impulse / great force) and they usually hit the body of the game at the same time. This massive impact on a large area (the pellets scatter a bit apart) causes a large (nerve) shock / trauma in the tissue and the game is often dead on the spot or only manages to escape briefly.

Due to the poor aerodynamic shape (large cross-section), the lack of twist (caused by missing pulls in the barrel of the weapon) and the rather uncontrolled escape of the projectiles from the barrel of the weapon lead to very poor ballistic properties. The ammunition scatters very heavily and is therefore very imprecise, the projectiles fall off quickly and the good shock or wounding effect dissipates quickly with increasing distance. The effective range is already reached at 40 to 50m (60m). If you hit game that is even further away, it will probably not die from the shot, since the projectile effect is already too weak or, due to the strong dispersion, too few projectiles hit the target.

In addition, the lethal effect of this ammunition is only sufficient for small game (no birds) and small to medium-sized deer. Larger animals are not allowed (ethical hunting).

This ammunition is one of the best for fast moving, small game such as deer, fox or coyotes. It doesn't have to be precisely targeted. It is usually enough if the shot hits the animal. It is important that the distance remains short. Due to the strong dispersion, it is also possible to kill several animals standing close together with one shot. Wild is usually killed instantly when hit. So you have no burden with the search.

12/76 shotgun barrels
Shotgun barrel projectiles are massive projectiles that can be fired from shotguns. In the 12 GA caliber, they have a comparatively large diameter of 18.35 mm and a little more. This gives a very large cross-sectional area and an extreme shock or wounding effect is to be expected.

Shotgun barrel projectiles have a very high weight of up to 39 g and therefore have a very high projectile energy (> 3500J) and force (impulse) despite the rather low speed.

The low speed and the very large cross-sectional area ensure strong ballistics, a strong loss of energy and great inaccuracy at great distances. The maximum effective range is specified as 90 m. This bullet should therefore only be used for short distances <60 m, for very large game <40 m. At greater distances it is difficult to aim and the bullet has too little effect. Even at 60 m, the bullet hardly penetrates into, for example, an elk's body.

At short distances you even have a very good penetration effect and a fantastic shock or wound effect. This leads to a very good stopping effect.

Shotgun bullets are therefore ideal for large game at short distances. There is little need to aim precisely and the game quickly succumbs to even "bad" shots. Simple body hits without having hit vital organs are often immediately fatal or the game runs a few meters and then lies down.

It is therefore also ideal for hunting moving game, where you simply cannot aim so precisely that quickly, and for warding off or hunting dangerous game.

20/76 bird haze
This is ammunition that is fired by shotguns. The very fine shot consists of more than 200 small pellets with a maximum diameter of 1.75 mm.

Due to the spherical shape, the individual balls are very "blunt" compared to the streamlined, pointed projectiles of the rifles. This gives us a very large cross-sectional area and a low cross-sectional load. With these properties one need not expect a great penetration effect. It is the same: The individual projectiles quickly get stuck in the target medium and only very rarely penetrate so deeply that vital organs are injured. This usually only happens at short shooting distances. Aiming at vital organs / weak points on the body of the game is almost superfluous.

At the same time, thanks to these properties, we have a very good shock and wounding effect. There are no rejects, i.e. all the energy, sometimes more than 1500 J, is absorbed by the target medium. The shotguns together are quite heavy (leads to a great impulse / great force) and they usually hit the body of the game at the same time. This massive impact on a large area (the pellets scatter a bit apart) causes a large (nerve) shock / trauma and the game is often dead on the spot or very rarely manages only a short escape.

Due to the poor aerodynamic shape (large cross-section), the lack of twist (caused by missing pulls in the barrel of the weapon) and the rather uncontrolled escape of the projectiles from the barrel of the weapon lead to very poor ballistic properties. The ammunition scatters very heavily and is therefore very imprecise, the projectiles fall off quickly and the good shock or wounding effect dissipates quickly with increasing distance. The effective range is already reached at 40 to 50 m (60 m). If you hit game that is even further away, it will probably not die from the shot, since the projectile effect is already too weak or, due to the strong dispersion, too few projectiles hit the target. You don't need to look for pheasants with such bad hits. There is also no admonition from the RangerDoc. For example, ducks can only be fatally injured up to a maximum of 75 m with this type of ammunition.

This ammunition is one of the best for fast moving, small game birds such as ducks, geese, pheasants and turkeys, but also for other small game such as rabbits. If you want to hunt game birds, you can hardly avoid this ammunition. It doesn't have to be precisely targeted. It is usually enough if the shot hits the animal. It is important that the distance remains short. Due to the strong scattering, it is also possible to kill several animals that are standing / flying close together with one shot. Pheasants, for example, cannot be killed so easily in the air with any other type of ammunition. The game is usually immediately dead when hit. This means that you have no burden to look for.

This cartridge is a little weaker than the 12/76 bird haze, so it offers a little less reserves.

.50 conical lead bullet
These lead bullets have a large diameter (caliber .50) and can therefore transfer their energy well into the target medium. Therefore, such projectiles are expected to have a high shock effect.

So that the bullets are also reasonably stable in the air, they are conical in shape and thus much more stable, more precise and with a higher penetration effect than simple lead bullets.

It all sounds like a very powerful projectile. But you have to note that the bullets are fired from a muzzle loader with black powder. Black powder burns down quickly and can therefore give the heavy, sluggish lead bullet much less kinetic energy than modern gunpowder, for example. Therefore, this lead bullet is not as powerful as one would assume at first glance, but it is still quite powerful.

Ideal for large, heavy game over short and medium distances. At large distances, the bullet becomes imprecise and loses a lot of energy due to the large cross-sectional area, so that it becomes ineffective at some point.

.50 lead balls
These projectiles are classic lead bullets, which are a historical type of ammunition, so they have major disadvantages compared to modern ammunition. These bullets are used for historical weapons such as muzzle loading shotguns, so they are only intended for hunters who love traditional hunting and its challenges.

The bullets are spherical and have a very large caliber of .50. The bullet diameter is around 13 mm, which is very large compared to all other rifle bullets. The bullet weight is also very large. A good shock or wounding effect and a moderate to poor penetration effect are expected. These lead bullets can therefore be easily compared with the shotgun barrel projectiles. The properties / effects are very similar, only these .50 lead bullets are weaker than the shotgun barrel projectiles, which can be justified as follows:

Black powder is used as a propellant in this ammunition. This burns down very quickly and can hardly transfer the energy to the heavy lead bullet. Thus the speed is lower and the momentum and the projectile energy are lower than with the shotgun barrel.

The ballistic properties are also poor. There are no trains in the barrel and the spherical shape is aerodynamically very unfavorable. Due to the lack of twist and this unfavorable shape, the projectile flies imprecisely and drops sharply. At more than 70 m you have to hold over it and it becomes harder to hit. The high shock or wounding effect also decreases very quickly and strongly with increasing distance.

This is why this type of ammunition, analogous to shotguns with shotgun projectiles, is only made for short distances, usually well below 50 m. At short distances, however, a lot of energy is transferred to a large target area and there is a good shock or wounding effect. The stopping effect is therefore usually very large and even strong game often falls on the spot or after only a short escape. There is little need to be aimed precisely. Even worse hits often lead to success.

So a clear recommendation for small and large game, which usually collapses very quickly. Rather unsuitable for snipers.

.45 Sabot Bullet
Sabot bullets have a smaller diameter than the actual caliber of the weapon. So here too. At roughly .45 "the bullet is significantly smaller than the" normal ".50 bullets that are otherwise fired with such weapons.

The .50 caliber is very large, massive and often causes great damage to game. In order to hunt smaller game without destroying too much game, these .45 projectiles were developed.

The area of ​​application is therefore with smaller deer, coyotes, etc. The weapon is well to ideally suited for this purpose under 150 m. With large widths, the bullet quickly becomes imprecise and loses its effectiveness due to the still large cross-section.

With small widths, however, you have good shock and penetration effects. A nice bullet for muzzle loaders.

Rifle ammunition Edit source]

Characterized by a fairly balanced relationship between penetration and wounding or shocking effects. The latter effect is by no means as pronounced and strong as with shotgun ammunition. The cartridges have good to very good ballistic properties and are therefore also suitable for long distances.

Rifle ammunition
.45-70 Government
Very powerful rifle cartridge with a high bullet weight. Suitable for larger, bulletproof game such as pigs, moose, bears or bison. The cartridge is too strong for small game and therefore not approved in the EHR.

The high weight of the bullet provides a powerful impulse, so the bullet has a lot of power, penetrates deep into the body of the game and emits a lot of energy due to its large caliber and blunt shape. The game therefore usually dies very quickly. The good placement of the shot is still necessary due to the high shock and wounding effect, but it is quite simple.

The bullet speed is slow, the bullet is heavy with a large caliber; all of this makes for a more curved trajectory for the bullet. Thus, the cartridge is less precise over greater distances. No cartridge for snipers.

Particularly suitable for big game hunting and dangerous, attacking game. Typical shooting distances are less than 200 m.

9.3x62
This is a strong big game cartridge. The projectile diameter is 9.3mm and the bullet weight is around 18.5g. With these values, the bullet does not come close to that of the shotgun barrel projectile, but the large caliber and the partial jacket result in a mediocre to comparably low cross-sectional load. In addition, there is a very high projectile energy with sometimes over 5000 J at the muzzle.

These values ​​give the cartridge a whole range of interesting properties. Because we have a mediocre cross-sectional load, we have both good penetration and excellent wounding or shocking effects.

The wounding or shocking effect of this cartridge is extremely high compared to many other cartridges in the game, so that this cartridge clearly stands out from others such as .300 Win Mag, .30-06 Springfield, 8x57 IS etc., but not to the 12/76 shotgun barrels are approaching.

So it is less important where you meet the animal over short distances. Even worse hits, such as the shoulder blade or skull bones or simple body hits, quickly lead to the death of the game.This of course makes this cartridge very popular for hunting large game. Because you have to aim less precisely, this cartridge is of course also better suited to shooting moving game. The excellent shock effect is lost over long distances.

The penetration effect is very good at short distances. In large animals such as elk, the shoulder blade plus both lungs can be shot through. At medium to larger widths, the penetration effect is then only good but no longer very good. In general, the penetration effect of the 9.3x62 can be compared well with that of the .30-06 Springfield in the game. However, calibers like the .300 Win Mag achieve significantly better penetration values.

The mediocre to low cross-sectional load ensures that the bullet falls away or becomes imprecise with increasing distance (you notice this from around 150 m). So it's not a sniper cartridge. This also drastically reduces the wounding and shock effects of the 9.3x62.

So if you want a lot of stopping effect, especially for moving, large game and are not a sniper, you should use this cartridge. They can be used sensibly up to about 200 m.

8x57 IS
With a bullet diameter of 8.22mm, the 8x57 IS is somewhat larger than the .30 bullets (7.82mm), but it is still very easy to compare with them. This cartridge is particularly comparable to the .30-06 Springfield.

The penetration effect is consistently good over long distances. The penetration effect is comparable to that of a .270 Win and therefore noticeably better than that of a .308, especially over longer distances.

The shock or wounding effect is quite useful and is about that of the .30-06, and thus slightly above that of the .300 Win Mag and significantly above the wounding effect of a .308. As mentioned, the .270 Win and 8x57 IS have comparable penetration performance, but the shock / wounding effect looks completely different. The .270 clearly cannot keep up here due to its lower caliber and weight.

The 8x57 IS is an accurate cartridge with constant performance and therefore suitable for all distances in the game without great recognizable ballistics. The cartridge is a good, if not better, alternative to the .300 Win Mag at short distances or moving game, precisely because of the better shock effect. Of course, the weapon also plays an important role here (cadence, etc.).

A recommendation for deer and small predatory game in all situations. Larger game (pigs, elk ...) can also be hunted well, but the hit should be right. There is scope for bad hits, even better than with the .300 Win Mag or .308 but nowhere near as large as with a 9.3x62. The cartridge reaches its limits with very large game such as bears and moose. Only good shots lead to success. Only good shooters have a chance here, or the rest should use a different caliber.

.300 Win Mag
The .300 Win Mag is a very powerful rifle cartridge. The bullet has a weight of less than 14g and a diameter of about 7.82 mm. So we have a mediocre cross-sectional load. In addition, there is a very high projectile energy of more than 5000 J.

This cartridge is a true sniper cartridge and is therefore characterized by high accuracy and constant performance at all distances in the game (up to 220 m on the plane). That is why the weapons that can be used are also set for a sight shot at 150 m. Ballistics are hardly noticeable below 220 m.

The bullet has an extraordinarily good penetration effect and thus plays in a league of its own. Even at a distance of 80 m you can shoot through the shoulder blade and both lungs of game that is bulletproof, such as the elk. Other calibers such as 9.3x62 and .30-06 Springfield can only compete over very short distances.

On the other hand, the .300 Win Mag looks worse in play in terms of shock and wounding effects. It is stronger than that of the .308, calibers such as 9.3x62 do significantly more damage, but the .30-06 Springfield and even the 8x57 IS also do a little more damage. With the same hits (in the same organs) the piece will collapse faster with the above-mentioned stronger calibers than with the .300 Win Mag. However, with this one, due to the very good penetration effect, the chance of hitting a vital organ is significantly higher.

At short distances, other calibers often have the better stopping effect, or with the .300 Win Mag more attention must be paid to the hit position than with the 9.3x62 or .30-06 Springfield, for example. In return, the cartridge "retains" its performance better over large distances and can score here.

A clear recommendation to hunters who want to hunt large game, who also like to shoot large game at a greater distance. The cartridge is more suitable for quieter situations, since you should attach importance to the hit position, because the reserves are significantly lower with poorer hits. With moving game (on driven hunts or driven hunts), when you can aim quickly and perhaps not as precisely, other calibers are more interesting / equally good.

.30-06 Springfield
The .30-06 Springfield belongs to the .30 caliber group, such as the .300 Win Mag, .30-30 Win and the .308 as well. The cartridges can be compared with each other to a limited extent. The bullet diameter is then 7.82 mm and the bullet weight less than 14g. The .308 has a slightly lower bullet weight, the .30-06 and .300 Win Mag have a comparable one. In terms of performance, the .30-06 can be compared particularly well with the 8x57 IS.

The penetration effect is good over long distances. The penetration effect is even very good over very short distances. In terms of penetration, the .30-06 is well comparable with the 9.3x62, which is even weaker over very large distances. Thus, this cartridge leaves other calibers like .270 Win, 6.5x55 and .308 far behind, is comparable to the 8x57 IS, but is worlds beaten by the .300 Win Mag.

The shock or wounding effect is good and a lot of damage can be done, especially at short distances, so the stopping effect is good. The wounding effect is comparable to an 8x57 IS, noticeably stronger than that of the .300 Win Mag and significantly stronger than that of the .308 ... but is clearly exceeded by that of the 9.3x62 or rifle bullets.

The Springfield cartridge also impresses with its accuracy and hardly any ballistics under 200 m worth mentioning in the game. Therefore, a cartridge that is suitable for all distances in the game and a good, if not better alternative to the .300 Win Mag for short distances or moving game, precisely because of the better shock effect. Of course, the weapon also plays an important role here (cadence, etc.).

A recommendation for deer and small predatory game in all situations. Larger game (pigs, elk ...) can also be hunted well, but the hit should be right. There is definitely room for maneuver in the case of bad hits, even better than with the .300 Win Mag or .308 but not nearly as large as with a 9.3x62. The cartridge reaches its limits with very large game such as bears and moose. Only good shots lead to success. Only good shooters have a chance here, or the rest should use a different caliber.

.308
This ammunition can be fired from rifles and specially made single-shot pistols. When fired from the pistol, the cartridge performs significantly worse because the barrel of the weapon is much shorter. This article describes the performance when the cartridge is fired from a rifle, or only in some places the pistol is discussed, which is then mentioned separately.

This cartridge, like the .300 Win Mag and the .30-06 Springfield, is in .30 caliber, i.e. we have a bullet diameter of about 7.82 mm. In terms of its overall performance in the game, the cartridge can be characterized as a very weak .30-06 or 8x57 IS.

The penetration effect is good, can be compared with that of a 6.5x55 and at short distances even almost with the .270 Win, which does significantly better at longer distances. .308 and 6.5x55 weaken strongly from about 70 to 80 m. The penetration effect of the pistol shot is significantly worse.

The wounding effect is slightly weaker than that of the 8x57 IS and .30-06 and slightly weaker than that of the .300 Win Mag, but significantly stronger than the effect of a .270 Win and by a large margin stronger than the 6.5x55. This is where the larger bullet diameter and weight of the .308 come in handy. The shot from the pistol is about 8% weaker, which is clearly noticeable - 8% sounds little, but means a lot here.

So, depending on the type of game, you have to aim very precisely. More precisely than e.g. with the .300 Win Mag or the .30-06 Springfield etc. If you hit well, the cartridge does not cause any problems, even very large game lies immediately or after a short escape. If you hit badly, the effect of this cartridge is very bad on large game and additional shots will be necessary. Therefore, this cartridge is only suitable for small, moving game, but not for large ones such as pigs, bears, elk, etc. These animals should only be shot if you can aim sensibly in peace and quiet.

Ballistic performance is also good. The cartridge is accurate and keeps up well with comparable calibers. Can be used at all distances in the game without any disadvantages.

So a recommendation for deer and small predatory game in all situations. Larger game (pigs, elk ...) can also be hunted well, but the hit should be really good. The cartridge reaches its limits with very large game such as bears and moose. Only very good shots lead to success. Only good shooters have a chance here, or the rest should use a different caliber.

.303 British
A slightly weaker cartridge in .30 caliber. In terms of performance, it is comparable to a somewhat weaker .308. There is no need to make any corrections to the stopping point below 200 m.

The penetration effect is good but not outstanding, as with other calibers such as 7 mm Rem Mag or .300 Win Mag.

The rounding effect is also in the lower mid-range for a .30 cartridge.

Thus, the cartridge can be very effective if the shot is well placed. The cartridge forgives minor mistakes even at short firing ranges. The shot should sit well over a long distance, otherwise the whole thing will be very tough. So something more for the quieter high seat hunter than for a hunter on a drive or driven hunt.

.30-30 Winchester
The .30-30 Winchester is a .30 caliber cartridge like many popular calibers in the game (.30-06, .300, .308 etc.). The bullet is strongly rounded, which prevents unintentional firing in the tubular magazine.

In terms of performance, this cartridge can hardly be compared with the aforementioned .30 cartridges. The .30-30 is significantly weaker. They can be classified between the .243 Win and the .270 Win. The caliber is significantly larger and the bullet heavier, but the cartridge is slower and less precise.

The penetration effect is poor with larger game, but good with smaller deer at short distances. Over 120 m, the cartridge weakens even with smaller deer. You shouldn't shoot much further at such game ... mostly you have to hope for the stronger shock effect, which also disappears at great distances.

At shorter distances, the shock effect and thus the stopping effect is good (as a result, the larger caliber and the flattened tip transfer a lot of energy), but also not outstanding. The heavy bullet of 11 g penetrates the target medium well. This is the only way to explain that this otherwise slow and low-energy cartridge achieves a reasonably good stopping effect.

However, with increasing distance, the bullet quickly loses energy and accuracy. At long distances it then clearly weakens and a shot at about a pig should be considered carefully! It is better to reduce the distance significantly or aim very precisely. Here, for example, a .270 Win is clearly ahead.

A nice cartridge for distances under 100 m suitable for small deer up to red deer. But pigs can also be hunted effectively if they are in good position and at a short distance. In the case of larger distances, more and more importance should be attached to the correct hit position, or rather keep your finger straight, because this cartridge is one of the few rifle cartridges which is quite useless for large distances (> 150 m) or only for very small game how coyote is suitable.

7 mm Rem Mag
This cartridge is a strong, accurate rifle cartridge. In terms of game mechanics, it is very close to the .300 Win Mag, only slightly weaker.

The bullet has a diameter of 7.2 mm and is therefore comparatively small. The case is long and offers space for a lot of gunpowder, which accelerates the projectile to very high speeds of sometimes over 950 m / s. Therefore, the cartridge is still very accurate over long distances and does not lose energy as quickly. Therefore, the penetration effect is also extremely good.

The shock or wounding effect is mediocre, which cannot be expected otherwise with a 7 mm bullet.

Generally speaking, a powerful cartridge for small and large game. The cartridge is very suitable for long distances (over 200 m) - therefore an ideal sniper cartridge.

.270 Winchester
Here we have a comparatively powerful rifle cartridge. The bullet diameter is 7 mm and is therefore compared to other rifle calibers in the game (.308, .30-06, .300 Win Mag all with 7.82 mm, 8x57 IS with 8 mm, 9.3x62 with 9.3 mm etc. .) rather small. The bullets also weigh only 8g. Due to a comparatively long case, a low weight and a small cross-sectional area, the bullet has a very high speed (> 900m / s), a high cross-sectional load and an energy of over 3000 J at the muzzle. This puts them in ranges of .308 or better.

Due to the small bullet diameter, this cartridge has a good penetration effect, which is above all constant over large distances and is not only good for small distances. Even in the case of the elk (for which the cartridge is not approved), the relatively light projectile can penetrate the shoulder blade and injure the lungs at 80 m and more. The effect is comparable to that of an 8x57 IS, and possibly even better at very large distances. Thus the .270 Win also has a better depth effect than the .308 or 6.5x55.

The penetration effect is the strongest / most important effect of this cartridge, because with such a small diameter and such a low bullet weight there is no great impulse / no great force that could cause a widespread wounding or shock effect. The shock effect is therefore really meager, which is why this cartridge is not approved for very large game. The .308 (made of a rifle and pistol) is sometimes much stronger in terms of its effect, so even more other calibers such as .300 Win Mag, .30-06 etc. With the .270 Win it may be easier to hit vital organs, but it takes longer for the game to die from it, or if the shot is unsuitable, then there is little hope that the piece will still fall. Compared to the 6.5x55, the .270 Win still has a comparatively strong wounding effect.

The cartridge is therefore the ideal choice for stand-up hunting for game that is not in motion. Small game such as coyotes or deer can be hunted without any problems. Even medium-sized deer (mule deer, black-tailed deer ... up to the red deer) can be hunted well, if and that is the major requirement or challenge, the shot fits well. It is even possible to kill pigs with this cartridge. Here you hit the limit of what is feasible and what is permitted in the EHR (Ethical Hunting), and you should aim precisely. Even with good hits, certain escape routes are to be expected, since the wounding effect is quite weak.

Very large game such as bears, elk and elk are not allowed to be shot.

The ballistic properties are very good due to the high speed and the small projectile cross-section. The cartridge is very precise and that at over 200 m. Heavier projectiles like .308, 8x57 ... are hit here. Unfortunately, the maximum shooting distances in the game are too short for you to notice this clearly. A recommendation for snipers.

6.5x55
This cartridge fires projectiles with a diameter of 6.71 mm, which are rather small compared to other projectiles in the game (.30 caliber shoots projectiles that are more than 1 mm larger in diameter). The .270 Winchester also fires larger projectiles (7 mm).

Due to the small diameter of the bullet, the cartridge is fast, quite accurate and can be used at all distances in the game without problems and without changing the stopping point. The ballistics are barely noticeable. The penetration effect is also very clear, not least due to the fact that the 140 grain bullet is comparatively heavy (the .270 has only 130 grain) and penetrates the body of the game so well. Despite less power, the penetration effect is about as good as that of the .308 (shot from a rifle). However, the cartridge does not come close to the depth effects of an 8x57 IS or .270 Win. Weakens a little, especially from larger widths (> 80 m).

In terms of penetration, it is comparable to powerful calibers such as the .308, but in terms of wounds / damage it looks completely different. The wounding effect of the 6.5x55 is significantly less by far. The .270 Win is also far ahead of the 6.5x55 when it comes to wounding.This explains why you are not allowed to hunt large game (moose, bears, etc.) with the 6.5x55 in the game.

With the cartridge, you can quickly land good hits in the right places (i.e. aim well), even with large game (pigs etc.). These good hits (e.g. a shot in the lung) are usually not immediately fatal, but escapes follow, some of which are significantly longer than with other calibers in the same situation. Only very good hits (e.g. brain, heart, lung penetration, etc.) lead to the immediate death of the wild animal when playing with this cartridge. If you hit badly, you have hardly any leeway / security even at close range and the stronger piece will not die from the low wounding effect. More shots are then usually necessary.

For this reason, the cartridge can only be used meaningfully for bulletproof game such as pigs in situations when one can aim well (from a hide), but not when the game is moving quickly.

An excellent cartridge for smaller game such as coyotes, roe deer and smaller deer. Most of the time the game lies very quickly or in a bang and the trophy is less destroyed. The cartridges and weapons in this caliber are also lighter than many others - this saves weight units.

.243 Win