Which animal has the strangest skeletal skull?

: A new strain of animals has been discovered

A new strain of animals was discovered - page 1

By Gustav Adolf Henning

If the snowman was trapped in a valley in the Himalayas or the sea serpent caught the net in Loch Ness, Scotland, then the zoologists of that valley or lake would be called Typicus locus describe. That's what they call a place where a new species of animal was discovered.

The discoverer dissects and describes his find, trying to get clarity about where in the animal system he can assign a place to the new being. Important taxonomic material, such as the entire animal or skeleton preserved in form, skull, teeth, fur of the "type", the specimen after which the new species is placed, are given red catalog numbers in the museum. Museums guard types with the greatest care or should do so, because types have scientific and historical value at the same time.

Now the first discoverer and descriptor goes in search of a new species, possibly even a new generic name. He wouldn't see the enigmatic sea serpent Mysticosaurus scotiae name because of the very similar name Mystio-saurus is already taken by the paleontologists and confusion would be possible. It also takes into account the other three dozen "articles" of the "International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature" and their advice.

He doesn't exactly call his new discovery Siemienkiewicziechinogammarus siemienkiewitschi like a Russian calls his new flea shrimp from Lake Baikal. In this case, at the next zoological conference, the Americans rightly and successfully applied for the name to be invalid.

Likewise, the first descriptor (in accordance with the explanation of advice h of Article 8) avoids honoring people in the new species name whose continued merit for research or their promotion has not yet been clarified. A warning example of a violation of the recommendation is a small beetle on the island of Crete, to which a German zoologist named the species in the last war hitleri attached. The choice may now be embarrassing for him, as it will challenge generations to come to meditate on the natural scientist's susceptibility to ideologies. Also appears when correct. A scientific animal name is quoted after the genus and species designation, always the surname of the author with the year of the first description.

Last but not least, it is important to use acceptable Latin when naming and to avoid the philological pitfalls of error-free transliteration.

A new strain of animals was discovered - page 2

Animal researchers celebrate this cliff-rich process of naming newly discovered species hundreds of times a year. Because still not all life forms on earth are known. The zoologist does not yet need to travel to Mars to search for new species; with luck and patience he can try it in the municipal facilities, but there he will only find new things under microscopic small animals.

The Kiel zoologist Professor once conducted research on the doorstep, so to speak Adolf novels. The luck happened to him, a completely new one, so far. to track down neglected habitat. In the sand near the coast, he found, the tiny cavities between the individual grains of sand are inhabited by a fauna made up of all new species. your Typicus locus is the Bay of Kiel.

The sand gap system as a living space Mesopsammal called, through which the bathers on the North and Baltic Seas feel their way into the deep water - it is alive. "Here," wrote Remane, "the enthusiasm for a new world of organic forms could be experienced once again in the 20th century, which gave the plankton and deep-sea researchers of the previous century such a powerful impetus."

However, the public did not share the enthusiasm for discovery. She stubbornly ignored the new world in the sands, especially since none of the new species touches the everyday life of the earth citizen with their activity. Even zoologists, unless they are just specialists in these animal forms, have been calling the sand gap fauna for a generation, for the sake of simplicity, "remane animals".



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The jaw-jaws also belong to this incorrect nomenclature category. The Kiel professor pulled his first ashore forty years ago. And since the news of the jaws of the jaw has only attracted a few educated people, their science - recently ironically called "Gnathostomulidology" by the magazine "Scientific American" - might still not be worth mentioning if these animals had not made a career that is only given to a few newly discovered forms of life.

At first it was difficult to separate the jaws, worm-like creatures with a club-shaped head and a tail, from the substrate. They adhere to the grains of sand by a mechanism that is still unknown. Then the 0.3 to 1 millimeter long animals can only be studied under the microscope as long as they remain alive. The delicate creatures do not withstand the pressure of the thin cover slip for long. Immediately the epidermis dissolves and the cells swim away in all directions. Because every cell is equipped with a fine scourge. This and other characteristic: - like a jaw apparatus in the throat - gave the jaws a strange special position. Your classification in the animal system: was not possible right away.

It was not until 1956, twenty-eight years after the discovery, that the Remane pupil warmed up Peter Ax, Today professor in Göttingen, again for these sensitive and difficult remnant animals, examined them thoroughly and named them Gnathostomula paradoxa, novum generum, nova species (new genus, new species). What is paradoxical about animals is that they combine characteristics of cnidarians, vortex worms, rotifers and a few other groups. This prompted Ax, for the Gnathostomulida (in German Kiefernmäulchen) to set up their own provisional order.

A new strain of animals was discovered - page 3

An order, that is a respectfully high nomenclature level. Families are grouped together in orders, and in these again genera, and the genera are broken down into species. Although only half of all animal species on earth have been described, the systematists estimate that 80 percent of all families and 95 percent of all orders are known.

But the jaws of the pine jump over two more rungs in the last few years: They were first raised to the rank of a "class", then to that of a "tribe".

You can never go higher. The strain (Phylum) is already the top category. A living being on the earth planet belongs either to the plant or animal kingdom (Regnum). And the animal kingdom today comprises 24 tribes. One of them is represented by the jaws of the pine.

A famous animal strain are, for example, the arthropods (insects, crabs, spiders, millipedes).

Man and fish are related to their tribes; both have vertebral bones. Tribes demonstrate how many different ways animal life can be organized, how different the structures for locomotion, nutrition, breathing, orientation and reproduction can be, into how many "blueprints" the family tree of living beings has branched out into.

The zoologist Professor recently attempted a lecture on the little jaws of the jaw R. J. Riedl, currently at the University of North Carolina in Science (vol. 163, page 445) to attract American zoologists to the new strain. In just two years he had discovered 14 new jaw-mouth species on the American east coast, so that today a total of 34 species, spread over 10 genera, are known. Pine mouths are cosmopolitans, so they are at home on all coasts of the world. According to Riedl's estimate, a few hundred new species can still be discovered.

It can hardly have anything to do with the millimeter format of the jaws of the jaw that their discovery and elevation to the animal tribe caused so little attention, rather with the fact that humans irrationally unevenly distribute their interest among the animal trunks. Because even the beard worms or pogonophores have made no headlines as the Russian zoologist Professor A. W. Ivanow recognized them as a new animal strain in the 1950s. And the beard worm Zenkevitchiana longissima With a body length of one and a half meters, it should at least be the size of a newborn sea snake.