Are Sacagawea coins legal tender

U.S. dollar

Template: This articleTemplate: Infobox Currency Unit

The U.S. dollar (USD, symbol: $) is the currency unit of the United States. The US dollar is also used as an official and legal tender in several other countries. These include the British Virgin Islands, Ecuador, El Salvador, Panama, Micronesia as well as Palau and East Timor.

A dollar is divided into 100 cents (symbol: ¢). Due to the color scheme of the banknotes, it is colloquially known as Greenback designated. Also the term Buck is widespread. The banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The United States Mint is responsible for minting the coins. The US dollar is freely convertible.

Origin of the "$" character

The origin of the world-famous symbol "$", which stands for the American dollar, cannot be clearly determined. Probably the most accurate explanation is based on a further development of the letters “P‘s”, the Spanish-Mexican symbol for “Peso” which was also known as the “Spanish dollar”. This explanation is based on the assumption that when writing the "S" over time the "P" was written and thus a character similar to the "$" was created. The curves of the "P" gradually disappeared completely. The Spanish dollar was a widely used currency in the United States until it was replaced by the US dollar in 1785.[1]

History of the american dollar

The origin of the United States' single currency dates back to 1690 when the country consisted of many colonies. At that time, the colonies were very valuable as suppliers of raw materials, including tobacco and cotton. They were under the rule of the British and the "East India Company". The 13 colonies, however, regarded themselves as sovereign states and levied customs duties on their borders, which made trade very difficult. In addition, the English currency was not accepted, the British pound was banned. There were different currencies for trading within the American colonies. One of the colonies, the "Massachusetts Bay Colony", today known as the American state of Massachusetts with the capital Boston, was the first colony to use its own paper money to finance the military. The other colonies followed suit.[2]

In order not to let the American economy become too strong, the British tried to slow down growth through restrictions. In 1704 the minting of coins was banned in all colonies. In order to be able to continue trading, the colonists used the Spanish or Dutch currency. In this context, the term dollar, derived from the European name "Taler", was created. Silver coins of Spanish origin were known as "Spanish dollars". Finally, in 1775, the colonists decided to wage war against the British. The "Continental Congress" (Continental Congress), which represented the government of the colonies, used the so-called "Continental currency" (continental currency), which was the new official currency of the entire 13 colonies. However, due to the weak financial system and the high rate of counterfeiting, the newly introduced currency did not stay in circulation for long.[3][4][5]

In 1781, the Continental Congress asked what was then the first national bank, the Bank of North America in Philadelphia, for help. The aim was to strengthen the financial system. Then in 1785 the "dollar" was used as the new currency of the USA and in 1787 the first coins were issued. In the "Coinage Act" of 1792 the monetary system was established. It was decided to introduce a decimal currency.

A decimal currency is a currency whose main currency unit is divided into one or more sub-units according to powers of ten. The subdivision into a sub-unit is the normal case here. The first state to permanently introduce this system was the USA in 1792. The division was made into 10 dimes and 100 cents. $ 10 equals one eagle. The designation dime has been retained for the 10-cent piece to this day, although this is not used as the invoice currency. The cent acts as a model for the division into hundredths of almost all currencies that exist around the world.[6] Then the new coins made of gold, silver and copper were introduced.

The entire 19th century in the United States was marked by an ups and downs in the dollar. Historical events such as the construction of the railway network or the Civil War put a heavy strain on the economy and the dollar. After each crisis, however, it regained its strength, partly due to the large influx of immigrants.

The first dollar banknotes made of paper were put into circulation in 1861/1862 to finance the Civil War. The notes were called "greenbacks" because of their color and featured portraits of famous Americans on the front. The new bills were more difficult to forge and bore the Treasury Department's seal.

In 1913, the central bank ("Federal Reserve Bank") on the basis of the "Federal Reserve Act" (English: Central bank laws) founded. The reason for this decision was to try to structure the financial system so that it could adapt to the changing needs of the country. The first note of the newly established central bank was issued in 1914. As a result, the bank's board of directors decided to reduce the size of the notes by 30% in order to reduce manufacturing costs.[7][8]

Over the years the dollar gained more and more strength and international importance. At the meeting in New Hampshire (USA) in 1944, at which the Bretton Woods system was created, the dollar was chosen as the reserve currency. This system is a monetary system that was developed by representatives of 44 countries and the International Monetary Fund. The aim of the new system was to create smooth global and international trade through the establishment of fixed exchange rates. 27 years after its introduction, the system collapsed in 1971.[9][10]

The design and size did not change until 1996. It was only this year that new security features were introduced to protect against counterfeiting. Since then, the changes have taken place at regular intervals in order to adapt to the new developments in science.

Gold standard and gold ban

As part of the official gold standard currency, gold dollars have existed as currency coins since the "Currency Act" in 1900. Since around 1900 all minted silver dollars and their sub-units up to the 1 cent piece were divisional coins.

In 1900 the gold parity per dollar was set at 1.504632 grams.

When the Great Depression began in 1929, the value of an ounce of gold was only US $ 20.67, which means that an increase in the amount of money to counter the crisis would not have been covered by gold reserves. The crisis spread worldwide and many countries suspended the gold standard, which led to a devaluation of gold.[11]

On April 5, 1933, the ban on private gold ownership, in accordance with the so-called "Gold Ban Decree" by Franklin Roosevelt, after a change in the draft of March 9, 1933, became final. This included private ownership of all gold coins, gold bars and gold certificates. People were forced to surrender their gold for a value of $ 20.67. It was no longer possible to exchange coins and banknotes for gold. [12] On January 31, 1934, the gold parity per dollar was set at 0.888671 grams, which corresponds to a value of $ 35 per troy ounce.[11] According to the agreement, an exchange of dollars for gold (US $ 35 per ounce) was only possible in commercial, international trade.

The US produced dollars beyond the real value of its gold reserves. The US dollar reserves in Europe and Japan exceeded the American gold reserves as early as 1960.

Thus, on August 15, 1971, the Nixon administration announced that extraordinary measures would be required to protect the American economy. These measures amounted to the dissolution of the right to convert the dollar into gold.

The dollar then had to lose so much in value in terms of gold within three years that it was only a fifth of its original gold value.

It was not until 1976, over 40 years later, that the ban on private gold ownership was lifted again. Today, like all other currencies, the US dollar is uncovered.[13]

Exchange rate development

Since World War II, the US dollar has become the world's predominant reserve and trade currency. Despite the end of gold convertibility in 1971 by President Richard Nixon and many political upheavals, the USA maintained this supremacy for many years.

However, due to an enormous deficit in the US foreign trade balance, the US dollar lost more than 50 percent of its value against the euro between 2002 and 2004. It also lost 15 percent of its weighted average value against all US trading partner currencies. After a short “recovery phase”, the decline in value has continued since 2006 and worsened with the mortgage crisis in mid-2007.[14] By spring 2009, the US dollar had increased again by about 13 percent. Since then, however, the currency has lost again by around 13 percent (as of November 2009).[15]

year1 EURyear1 EUR
1999$ 1.0658 20041.2439 USD
2000$ 0.9236 2005$ 1.2441
2001$ 0.8956 20061.2556 USD
2002$ 0.9456 2007$ 1.3705
20031.1312 USD 20081.4708 USD

After the euro was introduced as book money on January 1, 1999, it could be exchanged for US dollars just four days later at an exchange rate of 1.1789 euros. This was followed by a difficult time for the euro - it depreciated significantly against the US dollar over the next two years. The highest level of the US dollar was recorded on October 26, 2000 at 0.8252 dollars for one euro. The tide turned in January 2001, the beginning of interest rate cuts by the FED weighed on the US dollar, so that the euro rose to 0.9545 dollars. Since then, the rate of the US dollar has been in a steady downward trend with minor countermovements. The catastrophic policies of the Bush administration and the subprime crisis that began in the USA in 2007 led to a further and massive devaluation of the US dollar. Interest rates were cut massively and money from investors and speculators flowed out. The dollar reached its all-time low on July 15, 2008 at a rate of 1.6037 dollars for one euro. Since then, however, the dollar rate has risen again to a price of 1.33 dollars per euro by January 2009. [17][18][19]

year1 GBPyear1 GBP year1 GBP
1995$ 1.5781 2000$ 0.5130 2005$ 1.8182
1996$ 1.5602 2001$ 1.4369 2006$ 1.8400
19971.6371 USD 20021.4987 USD 20072,0009 USD
19981.1211 USD 20031.1312 USD 2008
1999$ 1.0658 20041.2439 USD 2009

Template: URVat least this sentence - possibly also previous contents have been copied from the listed source.Geisslr 09:01, 15 Dec. 2009 (CET)

year1 JPYyear1 JPY year1 JPY
1995$ 0.0106 2000$ 0.0093 2005$ 0.0091
1996$ 0.0092 2001$ 0.0082 2006$ 0.0086
1997$ 0.0083 2002$ 0.0080 2007$ 0.0085
1998$ 0.0076 2003$ 0.0086 2008$ 0.0096
1999$ 0.0088 2004$ 0.0092 2009

The Japanese yen is the third most widely traded currency in the world after the dollar and the euro. After the Second World War, the yen was pegged to the US dollar as part of the Bretton Woods system. The currency lost much of its value at the end of World War II and was pegged to the US dollar at 360 yen in 1949. At that time, one dollar was worth 360 yen. The yen has been freely trading since 1973. The Japanese currency has a much weaker international weighting than the euro and the dollar. By 1971 the yen was undervalued, prompting the US to act and move away from the gold standard. In 1971 a new exchange rate of 308 yen against the dollar was set, but it was difficult to maintain, and in 1973 the world's major currencies were made free.[22][23]

  • Exchange rate of the euro to the dollar since the euro came into existence

  • Exchange rate of the dollar to the Swiss franc

Since 2001, the US dollar has depreciated against both the euro and the Swiss franc. On July 15, 2008, the US dollar reached an all-time low with the euro exchange rate of $ 1.5990. At a value of 0.8252 dollars per euro, the US dollar reached its all-time high on October 26, 2000. The US dollar was first equivalent to the Swiss franc on March 14, 2008. The previous low was on March 16, 2008 at 0.9648 francs per dollar.

International Significance of the US Dollar

Since the Bretton Woods system, the US dollar has been used as the world's leading, transaction and reserve currency.[24] It is the most traded currency in the world.

In some countries around the world, the US dollar is an unofficial minor or second currency. In some states it is possible to pay in US dollars without having to convert it into the actual local currency. Some raw materials are traded in this currency unit on the world market. This includes, for example, oil, the money used for this is known under the term petrodollar.[25]

The role of the US dollar as a reserve currency

While the share of the euro in global currency reserves increased significantly, the share of the US dollar fell only insignificantly in recent years.[26] It is generally assumed that the euro will steadily gain in importance as a global reserve currency, while the US dollar will lose importance.[27] Globally, the US dollar can account for more than 60% of total investment reserves, which equates to several trillions. The FED can dispose of this value and offer it in the form of loans on the world market. The interest that has to be paid on these loans represents the seigniorage income of the FED. The loss of importance of the US dollar as a global currency reserve means a decline in income for the US Federal Reserve.[28]

Template: reserve currency

Role as transaction currency

The US dollar accounts for over 50% of international financial transactions, making it the most widely traded currency in the world. After the Second World War, the British pound, the reserve currency at the time, was largely replaced by the US dollar on the (financial) markets. US dollar transactions in 2003 were 50% versus 25% in euros and 10% each in pounds sterling and Japanese yen.

Legal tender role

The US dollar is also used as legal tender, as a so-called (foreign currency), in some states and regions outside the USA and its suburbs. These include:

U.S. Dollar index

After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the U.S. Dollar Index (USDX), introduced and set to a value of 100. Usually only one currency is weighted against another. With USDX, the US dollar is set in relation to six other currencies. By comparing it to other currencies, the aim is to provide as precise a picture as possible of the value of the US dollar. The index represents a basket of the following currencies: the euro (57.6%), the Japanese yen (13.6%), the British pound (11.9%), the Canadian dollar (9.1%), the Swedish krona (4.2%) and the Swiss franc (3.6%). If the US dollar index is trading at a value of 120, it means that the US dollar is worth 20% more than it was in 1973 when the index was launched.[29]

Today the USDX is denominated in ICE Futures U.S. listed.

The index has fallen sharply in recent years and is currently at an average value of 78,115 points (as of November 2009)

Compared to 1985, when the USDX reached a high of an average of 140 index points, it has stagnated since 2007 at a value between 70 and 80 index points. Conversely, this means that the US dollar has depreciated significantly in relation to the other currencies in recent years.

yearUS dollar index


Face value front back portrait motive Weight diameter thickness material edge
1 cent
Front pennyBack pennyAbraham LincolnLincoln Memorial2.50 g 19.05 mm 1.55 mm 97.5% Zn
2.5% Cu
5 cents
Front nickelNickel backThomas JeffersonMonticello5.00 g 21.21 mm 1.95 mm 75% Cu
25% Ni
10 cents
Front dimeBack dimeFranklin D. RooseveltOlive branch, torch, oak branch 2.27 g 17.91 mm 1.35 mm 91.67% Cu
8.33% Ni
118 corrugation
25 cents
QuarterGeorge WashingtonBald eagle5.67 g 24.26 mm 1.75 mm 91.67% Cu
8.33% Ni
119 corrugation
50 cents
Front halfBack halfJohn F. KennedySeal of the President11.34 g 30.61 mm 2.15 mm 91.67% Cu
8.33% Ni
150 corrugations
1 dollar Obverse dollarBack of dollarSusan B. AnthonyApollo 11 emblem8.10 g 26.50 mm 2.00 mm 91.67% Cu
8.33% Ni
1 dollar Obverse dollarBack of dollarSacajaweaflying bald eagle 8.10 g 26.50 mm 2.00 mm 77% Cu
12% Zn
7% Mn
4% Ni

Over time, other coins with different denominations were minted:[31]

  • Half cent, ½ cent (1793-1857)
  • Two cents (1864–1873)
  • Three cents, 3 cents (1851-1889)
  • Twenty cents, 20 cents (1875–1878)
  • Quarter Eagle, $ 2½ (1796-1929)
  • Three dollars, three dollars (1854-1889)
  • Half Eagle, $ 5 (1795-1929)
  • Eagle, $ 10 (1795-1933)
  • Double Eagle, $ 20 (1849-1933)

The $ 10 gold coin, called the Eagle because of its eagle motif, as well as the quarter, half, and double eagle coins, and also the $ 1 and $ 3 gold coins that were in circulation, became withdrawn from the Federal Reserve Bank in the wake of the gold ban. The “Double Eagle”, which was still minted with the year 1933 and valued at 20 gold dollars, was no longer issued due to the gold prohibition decree. One of the approximately 20 unmelted copies was at an auction on July 30, 2002 in the auction house Sotheby's sold in New York for the record price of a total of 6.6 million US dollars, which is probably the highest collector price paid for a coin to date.[32]

History of the coins


Designed in 1909 by Victor D. Brenner for the 100th birthday of Abraham Lincoln, the profile of which was struck on the obverse of the penny coin. This cent coin was the first coin in circulation to show the image of a president. In 2009, in recognition of the bicentenary and the 100th anniversary of the first minting of the Lincoln profile on the 1-cent coin, four different 1-cent commemorative coins were put into circulation. The themes of the coinage on the reverse of the coin represent the four most important aspects of President Lincoln's life. These were: the birth and early childhood in Kentucky from 1809 to 1816. This was followed by the formative years in Indiana from 1816 to 1830. Then came the years of his professional life in Illinois from 1830 to 1861 and finally his presidency in Washington DC in the years from 1861 to 1865.

The points of view on the back are composed of the inscription "United States of America", the Latin embossed script "E Pluribus Unum" ("from many one") and the value of one cent. In 1792, with the establishment of the United States Mint, the 1-cent coin was the first coin produced by it, which is apparently very different from today's modern 1-cent coin. The picture on the first penny coin was a woman with flowing hair, which was supposed to symbolize freedom. The new 1 cent coin features a flying eagle on the obverse and a wreath on the reverse. On February 21, 1857, it was forbidden by law to use 1-cent coins from other countries due to a significant shortage of domestic coins. However, in the process, people were given the opportunity to exchange the foreign coins at the bank for domestic US silver coins and new cents. From 1959 to 2008, the back of the penny was embossed with a portrait of Lincoln designed by Frank Gasparro to commemorate Lincoln's 150th birthday.[33]


A portrait of Thomas Jefferson has been featured on the obverse of the 5-cent nickel coin since 2006. The portrait shows Jefferson in his position as Vice President at the age of 57. This painting was the basis for most of the paintings made by Jefferson during his lifetime. The inscription “Liberty” was modeled from his own handwriting. This inscription first appeared on the nickel coin in 2005. The design of the back of the nickel in 2006 was sharper and more detailed than ever. This is due to the fact that the engravers of the United States Mint provided their original with more details (such as balconies, windows, doors).[34]


On January 30, 1946, the so-called dime (ten cent coin) with the image of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in memory of his death on April 12, 1945, was introduced for the first time. This coin is still in circulation today. One reason for the introduction was that shortly after Roosevelt's death in 1945, many citizens turned to the Federal Ministry of Finance in writing, requesting that the portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt be struck on a coin, as the latter contacted the Federal Ministry of Finance during his lifetime participated in a research program called the March of Dime for cures for the polio virus at the age of 39. On the other side of the coin is a torch that represents freedom, an olive branch that symbolizes peace and the branch of an oak tree that symbolizes strength and independence. Of all the coins, the penny is the smallest and thinnest that is still in use today. The sound of the name "Dime" was the same back then as it is today, but the spelling has been changed. The current word Dime was still spelled “disme” at the time. This is based on the old Latin term "decimus", which means something like tenth.[35]

"Quarter Dollar"

A quarter dollar, which has been in production since 1796, is a coin that is worth 25 cents or a quarter of a US dollar. The first coins in circulation featured Lady Liberty on the obverse and the bald eagle on the reverse. In 1932, for the 200th birthday of George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, a new quarter was introduced with his image.

In 1999 the 50 State Quarters series was started. Since then, five US states have been honored annually with a quarter. The order of the coinage depends on the accession of the respective state to the USA.[36] In 2009, the series was expanded to include the five subsidiary areas of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the US Virgin Islands and the northern Marianas, as well as the District of Columbia. [37]

"Half dollar"

The obverse of this 50 cent coin features a portrait of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, who was the youngest president ever elected. The presidential elections formed the basis for the portrait on the coin. The sculptor Roberts created this design immediately after Kennedy's assassination. The design on the back was based on the presidential seal. It consists of the image of a heraldic eagle with a shield on its chest, which holds a symbolic olive branch in one claw and a bundle of 13 arrows in the other claw. This eagle is surrounded by a wreath of 50 stars, these stars symbolizing the 50 states.[38]


Although the 1 dollar coin has been minted intermittently since 1794, there are currently only three 1 dollar coin series in production. On the one hand, there is the “Presidential Dollar 1 Coin Series”, which was used in 2007; There is also the “Sacagawea Golden Dollar Series”, which was first issued in 2000, and the “Native American Dollar 1 Coin Series”, which only came into circulation in 2009, still exists. All three of the $ 1 coin series are gold in color. This is due to a special mixture of different metals, although it does not contain gold. These coins have the same "electromagnetic signature" as the previous Susan B. Anthony dollar (SBA dollar), which was silver in color. The SBA dollar had slight edges. This coin was very similar to the quarter in terms of color and size, which often led to confusion. Since this coin was rather unpopular, the 1 dollar bill remained the more common means of payment. The minting of this coin was discontinued in 1980, but special mintings followed in 1981 and 1999. Although this coin is rarely in circulation these days, it is still considered a means of payment. By retaining the signature of the SBA dollar coin, the old coin machines are also able to recognize the newer coins. This meant that it was not necessary to switch to new machines.

In 2000 another attempt was made to implement a 1 dollar coin. The Shoshonin Sacagawea is depicted on this coin. This golden coin, in the traditionally round shape, can be easily distinguished from other coins. However, similar to the SBA dollar coin, American acceptance of this coin was rather low.

As a result, on February 15, 2007, the third and therefore most current generation of the 1 dollar coins (the so-called President's dollar) was introduced, which bears an embossed image of the Statue of Liberty on the reverse. Every three months, new coins were issued with the various portraits of the presidents who had already died on the obverse. The order in which the coins were issued was as follows: the first coin showed the image of George Washington, the second coin, which was issued three months later, was embossed with the image of John Adams. The John Adams coin is rarely found in common means of payment.[39]



  • The reverse of the one dollar bill depicts the two sides of the United States' seal.
  • Banknotes with a value of over 100 US dollars are no longer issued today, but are still considered legal tender. Most of the copies that are still in circulation are owned by collectors.[40]
  • The highest denomination note ever printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was a 1934 gold certificate at $ 100,000. This was only issued in exchange for gold of the same value. This note was only used for transactions between central banks.[40]

Special features of the banknotes

Serial numbers of the banknotes

The serial number of a dollar bill is based on a uniform scheme for all bills: It consists of two capital letters, followed by eight digits, followed by another letter.

Example: DL82674476A

Explanations based on the example:

D: The first letter indicates the series or edition of the note, e.g. B. the "D" indicates that this ticket belongs to a series from 2003. If the design of a banknote changes, a new series is issued, regardless of the extent of the change. For example, a new series can be printed due to the change in the signature on the slip. A new series is put out about every one to two years.

L: The second letter shows the bank from which the note was issued. There are a total of twelve central banks, the letter "L" stands for Dallas, for example.

82674476: The series of numbers is a consecutive number.

A: This letter always counts up by one letter as soon as the consecutive number has reached its end and has to start again at 00000001. The letters O and Z are omitted, making 24 combinations.

The green of the "greenbacks"

There is no precise explanation as to why the backs of US banknotes were printed with green ink. It is known that in 1929 the green dye was available in large quantities at this time and that it was relatively resistant to chemical and physical changes in the manufacturing process. Furthermore, the color green is supposed to express the strength and stability of the government and create trust in the currency. [41]

Security features

Since July 5, 1865, there has been a cooperation between the United States Secret Service, the Federal Reserve System and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to develop measures to keep the occurrence of forgeries as low as possible.[42] In 1966 the government began printing security features on banknotes. In order to continue to guarantee the security of the currency, the design of the notes is changed every seven to ten years.

The security thread is a thin strip that runs through the banknote. This cannot be reproduced by printing. All series printed after 1990 (except the $ 1 and $ 2 notes) contain this feature. The nominal value of the note is printed on this strip.[43]
These imprints appear as a line when viewed normally, but with the aid of a magnifying glass, the respective nominal value of the note becomes visible. The resolution of most copiers is not high enough to recognize these fonts.[43]
The following security features have also been used since 1996.
This symbol is created by different degrees of density of the paper. If the banknote is held up to the light, the portrait of the person depicted on the banknote becomes visible.[43]
  • Optically changeable ink
The color of the inscription changes at different viewing angles.[43]
Line patterns are printed on the front behind the portrait and on the back around the historic building. These lines are visible to the eye, but are difficult to see by scanners and printers.[43]
  • Enlarged, staggered portraits
The larger images are more detailed and thus make counterfeiting the banknote more difficult. The respective portraits were shifted slightly to the side to make room for the watermark and the security thread. The enlarged images make it easier for visually impaired people to identify the grade value.[43]

Other names for the US dollar

A common name for the dollar is buck. The term is possibly the short form of the term bugskin (Suede fur), which was considered a means of payment in the early American years.[44] 100 dollars will be too large called, $ 1,000 is often referred to as a grand (or G). The 10 and 20 dollar notes are also called sawbuck and double sawbuck designated. Like the banknotes, individual coins also have corresponding nicknames. 1 dollar is also called single, $ 2 as deuce and $ 5 as fin or fiver designated.

In some cases, the names of the people who are shown on the front of the notes, such as George, Tom or Frank used as a nickname. Dead presidents ("Dead presidents") is also an occasional paraphrase, regardless of the fact that Alexander Hamilton, who is depicted on the $ 10 bill, and Benjamin Franklin, whose portrait is on the $ 100 bill, were not presidents.[45]


The word can be found on all dollar coins minted since 1793 "LIBERTY" (Freedom). The motto "E Pluribus Unum" (“Out of many one”) initially only carried a few gold and silver coins. It is now part of all US coins. With the Coinage Act of 1864 the 2-cent piece was introduced. It was the first coin with the inscription "In God We Trust" (English: We trust in God). The saying was gradually adopted on the other coins and has been on all coins since 1938. The banknotes only have the inscription "In God We Trust". This first appeared in 1957 on a silver certificate for one dollar after the saying was declared a national motto in 1956.[46]


  • Anton Zischka: The dollar - the splendor and misery of a currency, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-7844-7172-2
  • European Central Bank: Review of the International Role of the Euro (PDF, 900 KB), Frankfurt 2005
  • Günther Schön: World coin catalog 20th century, Battenberg Verlag, Augsburg 1993, ISBN 3-89441-096-5
  • Hans Harlandt: The money, Schäuble Verlag Rheinfelden, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-87718-542-8
  • Krumnow, Gramlich (Ed.): Gabler Bank Lexicon: Bank Stock Exchange Financing. 12th edition. Gabler, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-409-46112-4

See also

Web links

Template: Commons

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ “$ sign”. Retrieved November 27, 2009
  2. ↑ Kross Samuelson: “Documentary History of Banking and Currency in the United States,” Volume 1, New York 1969, pp. 19, pp. 95-100
  3. ^ "History US-Dollar". Accessed November 27, 2009
  4. ↑ Kross Samuelson: “Documentary History of Banking and Currency in the United States,” Volume 3, New York 1969, p.1754
  5. ^ John Mathew Culbertson: "Money and Banking", 2nd edition, New York 1977, ISBN 0-07-014886-4, p.508
  6. ↑ "Decimal Currency". Retrieved November 29, 2009
  7. ↑ "History of the US Dollar". Retrieved November 29, 2009
  8. ↑ Nathan Lewis: “GOLD - The Once and future money,” 2007, ISBN 978-0-470-04766-8, pp. 153-174, p.197
  9. ↑ "Bretton Woods System". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  10. ↑ Gerald M. Meier: "Problems of a World Monetary Order," Hoboken, New Jersey 1974, ISBN 0-19-501801-X, p.27
  11. 11,011,1“From a bond crash to a gold ban” Wirtschaftswoche from February 3, 2009. Accessed on November 28, 2009
  12. ↑ “Timeline”. Accessed November 30, 2009
  13. ^ "Money, Gold and the Gold Standard". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  14. ↑ "International Political Analysis" by Jörn Griesse and Christian Kellermann. Accessed December 2, 2009 (PDF)
  15. ↑ "There is a precarious calm in the foreign exchange markets" Article by Robert Mayer. Retrieved December 2, 2009
  16. ↑ Source: UNECE Statistical Division Database
  17. ↑ Madeleine O. Hoshi, The Euro, A Concise Introduction to European Monetary Integration, 2005, pp. 59-60
  18. Currencies. Retrieved December 1, 2009
  19. Historical price developments. Retrieved December 1, 2009
  20. ↑ Source: PACIFIC Exchange Rate Service
  21. ↑ Source: IFS database
  22. ^ Philipp Hartmann, Currency competition and foreign exchange markets: the dollar, the yen and the euro, 1998, pp. 77-131
  23. ↑ Currency: Japanese yen. Retrieved December 1, 2009
  24. ↑ Krumnow / Gramlich: Gabler Bank Lexicon: Bank Stock Exchange Financing. 12th edition, 1999, p. 880.
  25. ^ "US Currency". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  26. ↑ "The dollar myth is fading" Focus from January 15, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2009
  27. ^ "Wall Street gambled away the dollar" Der Tagesspiegel, September 21, 2008. Retrieved November 29
  28. ↑ "World Currency On Demand - Flammable Game with the Dollar" Spiegel, September 18, 2006. Accessed December 1, 2009
  29. ↑ "US Index". Retrieved December 1, 2009
  30. ^ "Dollar Index". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  31. ^ "Coin Facts". Retrieved November 29, 2009
  32. ↑ "". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  33. ^ "Penny". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  34. ↑ "Nickel". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  35. ↑ "Dime". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  36. ^ "Quarter". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  37. ↑ "United States Mint / 25 cent coin". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  38. ↑ "Half Dollar". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  39. ↑ "$ 1". Retrieved November 26, 2009
  40. 40,040,140,2Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Retrieved November 27, 2009
  41. ↑ "Green Ink". Retrieved November 25, 2009
  42. ↑ "The USSS and Counterfeiting". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  43. 43,043,143,243,343,443,5"Security Features". Retrieved November 28, 2009
  44. ^ "Wortherkunft buck". Retrieved November 30, 2009
  45. ^ "Nicknames". Retrieved November 29, 2009
  46. ^ "In God We Trust." Retrieved December 1, 2009