How is the economy doing in Singapore these days

The Republic of Singapore

Republic of Singapore

Singapore = independent city-state in Southeast Asia

- Name: - King got into a storm on his ship when he was on the island of Temasek

(Port city / city by the sea) wanted to visit (Temasek = former name of Singapore)

- threw ballast overboard and finally the king's crown

⇨ The storm subsided at the same moment as the crown slid into the water

- When he arrived on the island, he saw a large, strange animal, with a sturdy body, a dark head and a white chest

⇨ King named the island Singapura (Singha = lion; Pura = city)

⇨ Lion City (old Indian)

-Today it is assumed that it was a tiger, since lions are steppe-dwellers and are hardly to be found here

- see coat of arms

- National territory includes the main island (587km2) and (59 and 54) small offshore islands

- total area of ​​647.8 km2 (world rank: 175)

⇨ about 3.5 times as big as Washington DC

- lies between latitude 1 ° 09 and 1 ° 29 north and longitude 103 ° 38 and 104 ° 06 east

- a good 100 km from the equator or 1 °

- The main island of Singapore is separated from Malaysia by the narrow Johorestrasse in the north; in the south, the Singaporestrasse delimits the state from the Rau archipelago, which belongs to Indonesia

- the actual city center City of Sinapore is located on the southern tip of the main island (97 km2)

- Time zone: CET (Central European Time) + 6 hours

- Official languages: English, Chinese, Malay, Tamil

⇨ Singlish = mixture of English and native languages
⇨ no official dialect
⇨ youth language
⇨ The government does not like to see it

Country structure:

- largest natural harbor in the world (natural bay)

- Singapore Island is a flat, undulating area without major elevations (hill area rises up to 165 meters above sea level)

- 193 km of coastline

⇨ Coral reefs off some coastal areas

- several small rivers have their source inland (the longest is 15 km long)

- other important rivers such as the Singapore River = tidal funnels and outflows of the lakes in the north-eastern island area, such as the Rochor River

⇨ do not play a role for boat and ferry traffic

- to the south and east Singapore turns into almost flat alluvial land

- However, this was drained to gain space

- The area of ​​the island is also constantly being increased by adding sand to reclaim new land

- In the past the island was covered with tropical rainforest, which was cut down for the benefit of the city

- The built-up area takes up only 1/5 of the total territory (1996)

⇨ Singapore = garden city with 6500 hectares of green space

Climate:

- Humid tropical climate with little seasonal temperature fluctuations

- Average annual temperature is 27.2 ° C

- Average annual rainfall is 2400 mm

- there is no pronounced rainy or dry season

- The monsoon climate: most rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon between November and January

- oppressive sultriness

- Average humidity: 85% (night: 96% / day: approx. 65%)

- The lowest temperature ever measured is 20 ° C

⇨ hardly any difference between day and night
⇨ no "real" seasons

Population:

- Population in July 2000: 4,151,264 inhabitants

⇨ roughly comparable to Berlin

- Population density: approx. 4395 inhabitants / km2

⇨ in individual residential areas up to 200,000 inhabitants / km2

- 77.3% = Chinese, 14.1% = Malay, 7.3% = Indian, 1.3% = Pakistani, Sri Lankan and others

- 0-14 years: 18%

- 15-64 years: 75%

- 65 years and older: 7%

⇨ untypical for a developing country

- Religion: 31.9% = Buddhists, 21.9% = Daoists, 14.9% = Muslims, 12.9% = Christians, 3.3% = Hindus, minority of Sikhs

⇨ Singapore = multi-ethnic state
⇨ no discrimination and conflicts, as ethnic minorities enjoy special protection according to the will of the state
⇨ They attach great importance to their integration
⇨ still keep their culture

- Population growth: 3.54% (2000); 1990-1998: 2.2%

- 2000: 1.16 babies born per woman

⇨ Since 1996, the strong population growth has been curbed by successful family planning (birth control)
⇨ not yet the values ​​of an industrialized country

- Birth and death rates: 1.4% / 0.5%

- Infant mortality: 0.4%

- Child mortality: 0.5%

- Life expectancy: a total of 80.05 years (men: 77.1 years / women: 83.23 years)

- Illiteracy rate: overall: 9% (m 4% / w 12%)

⇨ 91% of those over 15 can read and write
⇨ there is no compulsory education
⇨ only low school fees

Administration and politics:

- former British Crown Colony

⇨ Independence: August 9, 1965

- Republic (state people as bearers of state power => contrast: monarchy)

- in the Commonwealth since 1965

- the constitution of 1955 applies (1996: several changes)

- Compulsory elective from 20 years of age

- Head of State = Sellapan Rama Nathan (since September 1st, 1999)

- 1954: Founding of the People's Action Party (PAP) by Lee Kuan Yew (first Prime Minister of Singapore until 1990 => voluntarily resigned))

⇨ Since the first free elections in 1959, the PAP has emerged victorious (due to majority voting) and ruled the country in an authoritarian manner
⇨ there is no significant opposition
⇨ Critics are watched with suspicion and silenced with idiosyncratic means, e.g. by punishing them with ever higher fines for illegal agitation (intensive form of political propaganda) => financial ruin
⇨ However, the PAP has recently lost its support, as only 63% of the population still vote for “law and order” and “economic liberalism above everything”

History:

- According to ancient writings, Temasek or Singapore used to be a flourishing trading city on the shipping routes between the countries of the Arabian Peninsula, India and the Far East

- benefited from the upswing

- In the second half of the 14th century the decline began due to disputes over power with other empires and because of internal disagreements

- in the following 4 centuries => pirate's nest

- 28.1.1819: 2. Foundation of Singapore and thus the beginning of its development into an international trading city

- Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles landed as representative of the British "East India Company" on Sentosa (island of calm)

- was looking for a new trading post for unrestricted movement of goods and a storage place for British goods

- Singapore was a planned city from the start

- Each population group got its specific place:

⇨ Chinese: Telok Ayer Street
⇨ Indians: Market Street, Chulia Street, North Canal Road
⇨ Europeans: left bank of the Singapore River to Rochor Road
⇨ Malay, Pakistani + Arab Muslims: Arab Street

- Unrestricted immigration and opening of the Suez Canal (1869) and use of steam engines => boom

- Singapore = administrative seat of the Straits Settlements, to which the British bases Penang, Malacca and Singapore were merged in 1826

⇨ shows the importance of Singapore at that time

- Managed by the "East India Company" for 120 years

- Approx. 60 years of peace and economic upswing up to the Great Depression of 1929-1933

- 1927: 360,000 Chinese immigrated

⇨ highest number registered up to then

- Great Depression hit Singapore hard => 1930: Immigration quota for Chinese men for the first time

- World War 1: Singapore was only of strategic importance

⇨ Naval base ("Gibraltar of the East")

- World War 2: on the day of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Singapore was shot at from the air for the first time (by Japan)

- February 15, 1942: surrender

⇨ 3 1/2 years of Japanese reign of terror (clocks = Japanese time, Japanese language was taught, etc.)

- Autumn 1945: British sovereignty over Singapore restored

⇨ Call for independence

- 1959: Lee Kuan Yew was elected Prime Minister in the first free elections (PAP victory)

⇨ what Raffles was to the foundation of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew is to the modern development of Singapore

⇨ led the country from a colony to an independent republic

- PAP first left radical, then conservative with Lee Kuan Yew

Economy:

- Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S $) = 100 cents (c) (1 S $ = approx. 1.15 DM)

- GNP: $ 95,453 million

- GDP: $ 84,379 million

⇨ 97/98: belongs to the 10 richest countries (6th place)
⇨ Germany: 10th place
⇨ real growth 1990-1998: 8.5%
⇨ Share (1998) => industry: 35%, services: 65%

- Employment (1996) => industry: 30.3%, services: 69.5%, agriculture: 0.2%

⇨ Subsistence farming to supply Singapore, not intended for export

- Unemployment in 1999: 3.2% (average in 1999: 4.0%)

⇨ belongs to the industrialized countries with particularly low unemployment behind Norway and the Netherlands (98/99)

- Inflation rate 1999: 0.4% (1990-1998: 2.1%)

- Import: $ 111.2 billion

⇨ Machinery and transport equipment (60.3%), other finished products (18.4%) and mineral fuels (9.1%) and chemical products (6.0%)
⇨ Singapore has no raw materials !!!
⇨ Trade mainly with neighboring Asian countries (ASEAN states = Association of Southeast Asian Nations)

- Export: $ 114.8 billion

⇨ Machinery and transport equipment (66.3%), other finished products (12.8%), mineral fuels (7.9%) and chemical products (7.9%)
⇨ good trade balance
⇨ twelfth largest export nation
⇨ Singapore ranks 13th out of 20 leading world trading countries (97)

- the largest economic and trading center in South Asia after Hong Kong

⇨ 30% of the proceeds go back to re-export

- world's largest exporter of floppy disk drives

- Trade mainly with neighboring Asian countries (ASEAN)

- has the largest container port in the world (shipbuilding and ship repair are an important part of the industry)

- Greatest productivity in Asia

- Asia's largest refinery center with 5 oil refineries

- Singapore is one of the tiger states (term for Asian emerging countries)

- formerly: the "4 little tigers" = South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore

- later Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines were added

Reasons for the economic rise:

- Unlike other developing countries, Singapore was able to escape the debt crisis relatively unscathed

- Confucianism = practical and moral philosophy

- Confucius was a Chinese philosopher (551-479 BC)

- Confucian moral principles, the so-called 4 ropes: etiquette, sense of duty, shame and incorruptibility

- Development strategy developed by a United Nations panel of economic experts

⇨ The rule of experts is still characteristic of Singapore today

- Convincing foreign direct investors through comparative labor cost advantages, granting extensive tax breaks, high investments in infrastructure and in the training of the workforce

- no conflict-laden western multi-party system

⇨ Political decision-making processes were carried out relatively quickly

- high level of political stability and good governance

⇨ one of the most politically stable countries in the world

- Adopted the British legal system and its legal certainty

- was able to persuade multinational companies to settle here

⇨ Improving social hardship and unemployment

- Reason why the PAP is still in power

- the opposition, communist interest groups and independent trade unions were systematically eliminated in the 1960s and 1970s

- The current 80 or so registered parties had to commit themselves to the political goals of the government

- Success of the government program also through public housing

- In the post-war years, the lack of housing was one of the biggest problems with unemployment

⇨ From 1960 the state housing authority built over 714,000 public apartments with a per capita living space of 20 square meters
⇨ 87% of the population live in these today, and the trend is rising

- old slums were demolished

⇨ Singapore River used to be a sewer, today it is almost of drinking water quality
⇨ More golf balls than malaria mosquitoes fly through the air (on almost a dozen golf courses)
⇨ No more cholera cases for a long time

- Satellite cities emerged (65% of the population lives here and the trend is increasing)

- The standard of living is increasing

- all social groups participate in the economic upswing

- "Made in Singapore" has become a seal of quality that is respected worldwide

- English has been taught as a first foreign language since 1987

⇨ promotes cohesion in the state
⇨ English = world language is just a side effect
⇨ The government also promotes bilingual education

- Restructuring of the economy into more capital-intensive industrial sectors due to the emerging competition from neighboring countries

- Middle of the 90s => renewed change away from industry and promotion of the service sector

⇨ Causes: Singapore is surrounded by low-wage countries (Thailand + Indonesia) and can no longer keep up

- Long-term goal = reaching the level of development in Switzerland (whose gross domestic product in 1998 was at least 100 billion US $ above that of Singapore)

- In order to achieve the goal, the restructuring into a knowledge society is now being undertaken

⇨ September 99: Education offensive funded with S $ 200 million

- Singapore is no longer Asian but also not Western (peaceful coexistence of ethnic groups + incorruptible government)

⇨ Singapore = modern city by western standards

- Quality of life is more important to the government than the car lobby

⇨ simple calculation: expensive cars = few cars = good air
⇨ With high taxes and customs duties, a home-style Audi 100 costs over DM 200,000
⇨ public transport is cheap (60 pfennigs per underground journey, rail transport since 1987)
⇨ The underground, the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT), is one of the most modern in the world
⇨ Length of the road network: 3056 (railway: 26km)
⇨ Future: electric cars underground, parking facilities above

- popular destination for tourists (Singapore has no sex tourism)

- 1998: 6.2 million foreign visitors (not counting visitors from Malaysia)

- should be increased with the help of the "Live it up" campaign

⇨ Set standards in 5 categories: Culture, Fun City, Garden City, Art City and Gateway City (gateway to Southeast Asia)
⇨ new advertising slogan: "Smile Singapore"
⇨ with the largest hotel density in the metropolises

School-system:

- 5% of the state budget supports education

⇨ 3.5 billion marks = second largest item in the budget after military expenditure

- Rectors apply corporal punishment

- Parents pay up to S $ 400 per month for tutors

- no independent thinking

⇨ The examination material is learned by heart in a tough way

- German is taught as it is an important language for the development of Singapore

- after 2 years of German at school, the language is almost perfectly mastered

- in Singapore relationships and family relationships are not what counts as in the rest of Asia, but what you can do

⇨ Promotion possible without rich parents

- Quote from a student: "I feel obliged to be good human resources."

⇨ human capital

- the motto “the world belongs to the able” became right

- all 3 ethnic groups have a guarantee to keep their identity

⇨ The government does not want uprooted technocrats but subjects who are firmly embedded in their culture and yet have a perfect command of western techniques
⇨ Ethics and language classes are therefore held in the respective mother tongue, everything else in English
⇨ Melting pot like the USA it is = undesirable

- Pupils can memorize a multi-page poem in 10 minutes and write it down backwards = no problem, but an interpretation would be overwhelming

- Singapore's form of government called educational democracy

- Doubts about the competitive school system also among the Singaporeans

- Since 1955: "thinking programs" in schools = learn to question

Popular education:

- one of the government's many campaigns

- e.g.against long hair in men (men with long hair are served last), against pollution of the street, for courtesy in daily dealings and for strength, courage and excellence

- There are a number of prohibitions to implement this

⇨ Anything that is not expressly permitted is prohibited

- Urinating on the house walls and crossing a red traffic light costs a fine

⇨ Penalty for minor offenses: S $ 50
⇨ in the case of repetition: cane on bare bottom
⇨ There is a beating room in the prison for corporal punishment
⇨ no difference between native and foreign buttocks

- It is forbidden to feed birds, to eat and drink on the train, to throw rubbish and cigarette butts on the street and to expose turtles (it should bring good luck)

- the Cosmopolitan is forbidden => pornography

- Failures such as leaving the toilet without flushing: S $ 150 fine

- Chewing gum has been banned since 1992

⇨ a joke has stuck the light barrier on a door of the express train with a piece of chewing gum

⇨ result in considerable delays in local public transport

- Exceeding the speed limit is also prohibited: bell in the taxi

- The latest campaign is directed against smoking (it is forbidden in elevators, cinemas, public buildings, transport and in air-conditioned restaurants)

- A fine of up to S $ 1000 for violations

- Smoking opium has been banned since 1946

⇨ astonishing: in the past, opium was a tried and tested means of escaping everyday life
⇨ Under the British administration, the distribution and sale of opium in the opium dens at that time was allowed under payment of a tax ^ In 1911 the government took over the business

- Still rarely seen law enforcement officers

- Restriction of personal freedom and access to private life

- partial violation of human rights

⇨ People are arrested without a trial
⇨ censored press
⇨ Satellite television is also prohibited

- Internet = problem for the PAP, as there is no longer any control

⇨ PAP searches the Internet for false claims in order to correct them
⇨ 1.1% -. 3.9% of the population use the Internet
⇨ annual growth rate of internet users: 48%

- Promotion of a generation of polite, well-educated model citizens with little social and political commitment

⇨ the state takes care of everything
⇨ little questioning
⇨ Only material success counts for most of them

- but the safest city in the world with perfect traffic control

⇨ almost boring

- So that it stays that way or rather gets better, there is a state marriage agency

⇨ Singapore leaves nothing to chance
⇨ only for women and men up to 35 years of age with a university degree
⇨ "bright babies for a bright future"

- The birth rate is falling steadily and is one of the lowest in the world

- “The bad thing”: there are increasing those to which the state does not attach so much importance

⇨ the best genetic material is wasted
⇨ Chinese men prefer to marry women who are less educated and less successful than they are
⇨ the elite is shrinking
⇨ Singapore is losing competitiveness Marriage brokerage is successful
⇨ 1984: 38% of academics marry women academics
⇨ 1995: 56 % „ „ „ „

Singapore Syndrome:

- The population lives with a lot of discipline and faith after all the campaigns and bans

⇨ physical pain (e.g. stomach ulcers and lumps)

- Doctor prescribes swearing, spitting, throwing garbage, etc.

- But the population does not want to desecrate the country in which they believe

- Agreement with the Malaysian government

⇨ Malaysia is providing a plot of land that was originally intended as a landfill for industrial waste
⇨ Hundreds of Singapore residents come every day (officials)
⇨ arguing, throwing garbage, fighting, spitting and cursing
⇨ Constrictions, the painful knots and tension are loosened
⇨ healed

Conclusion:

- dictatorship-like conditions

- incredibly flexible

- enormous adaptability to the world market

⇨ Singapore has managed to transform itself from a shabby country into one of the richest countries in Asia

- just how long will the population accept the tutelage and restrictions

At least as long as the state can guarantee supply and prosperity, and the future looks good

- Young people in particular complain about the lack of freedom and space

- The state could prevent and, above all, introduce freedom of the press

⇨ That would mean a loss of control, so these steps are challenged for as long as possible

- but at some point the time will come when the population never begins to question the domestic political system

- Despite its success, this development strategy is probably not a model for other developing countries

⇨ due to special starting conditions (natural harbor) and political starting positions
⇨ Such extreme can only be achieved in such a small space
Establish economic systems that, according to Western points of view, already resemble a dictatorship
⇨ The absence of the agricultural sector and the absence of natural resources is unique and not found in countries of "normal" size
⇨ Building a machine industry is pointless if the population cannot be fed (import would be too expensive)
⇨ But if they were supplied with food, a well-trained and motivated workforce would be missing
⇨ Singapore has been dependent on food imports from the start
⇨ and has always been performance-oriented by faith

References:

- The Fischer World Almanac 2001

- Merian "Singapore and Malaysia" (11/95)

- Metropolises of the world "Singapore"

- Knaur's cultural guide "Hong Kong and Singapore"

- Baedeker "Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei"

- Dumont visually "Singapore and Malaysia"

- Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (1998)

- Brockhaus 2001

- www.cia.gov

- Star (20/2001)

Republic of Singapore - PAPER

Singapore: independent city-state in Southeast Asia

- total area: 647.8 km2 (world rank: 175)

- Time zone: CET + 6 hours

Country structure:

- largest natural harbor in the world (natural bay)

- Flat undulating area (largest elevation = hill area (165m above sea level)

- 193 km of coastline with a few coral reefs

- The built-up area takes up only 1/5 of the total territory (1996)

Climate:

- Humid tropical climate with little seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations

- Average annual temperature: 27.2 ° C

- Climate characterized by the monsoon (mean annual rainfall: 2400 mm)

- average humidity: 85%

Population:

- July 2000: 4,151,264 inhabitants

- Population density: approx. 4395 inhabitants / km2

- 77.3% = Chinese, 14.1% = Malay, 7.3% = Indian, 1.3% = Pakistani, Sri Lankan and others

- Population growth: 3.54% (2000), 1990-1998: 2.2%

- infant mortality: 0.4%; Child mortality: 0.5%

- Life expectancy: a total of 80.05 years (m 77.1 / w 83.23)

- Illiteracy rate: 9% (m 4% / w 12%)

Administration and politics:

- Former British Crown Colony (independence: August 9, 1965)

- Republic (state people = bearers of state power)

- in the Commonwealth since 1965

- Head of State: Sellapan Rama Nathan (since September 1, 1999)

- Leading party: People's Action Party (PAP)

Economy:

- Currency: 1 Singapore dollar (S $) = 100 cents (c) = approx. 1.15 DM

- GNP: $ 95,453 million

- GDP: $ 84,379 million

- real growth (1990-1998): 8.5%

- Share (1998): industry: 35%, services: 65%

- Employment (1996): industry: 30.3%, services: 69.5%, agriculture: 0.2%

- Unemployment in 1999: average 4.0%

- Import: $ 111.2 billion / export: $ 114.8 billion

- Singapore has no raw materials !!!

- Trade mainly with neighboring Asian countries (ASEAN)

⇨ Singapore is one of the tiger states (term for Asian emerging countries)

Reasons for the economic rise:

- Singapore escaped the debt crisis relatively unscathed

- Confucianism = practical and moral philosophy

⇨ Confucian moral principles, the so-called 4 ropes: etiquette, sense of duty, sense of shame and incorruptibility

- Development strategy developed by a United Nations economic body

- no conflict-ridden multi-party system

⇨ high level of political stability and good governance

- Adopted the British legal system and its legal certainty

- Convincing foreign direct investors through comparative labor cost advantages, granting extensive tax breaks, high investments in infrastructure and in the training of the workforce

- Restructuring the economy into more capital-intensive industries

- Middle of the 90s => renewed change away from industry and promotion of the service sector

- now: restructuring to a knowledge society

School-system:

- 5% of the state budget supports education (second largest item)

- No compulsory education, but low school fees

- competitive school system

- no independent thinking

- It is not relationships and family relationships that count, but what you can do

- Student = human capital

Popular education:

- Anything that is not expressly permitted is prohibited

- lots of campaigns and bans

⇨ restriction of personal freedom

⇨ partial violation of human rights (e.g. no freedom of the press)

- Promotion of a generation of polite, well-educated model citizens with little social and political commitment

- State marriage agency for university graduates up to 35 years of age

⇨ "bright babies for a bright future"

- dictatorship-like conditions

- Singapore has managed to transform itself from a shabby country into one of the richest countries in Asia

References:

- Fischerweltalmanach 2001

- Merian "Singapore and Malaysia"

- Metropolises of the world "Singapore"

- Knaur's cultural guide "Hong Kong and Singapore"

- Baedeker "Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei"

- Dumont visually "Singapore and Malaysia"

- Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia

- Brockhaus 2001

- www.cia.gov