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Solar modules

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Solar modules

Solar modules or photovoltaic modules are the heart of photovoltaic systems. They contain solar cells connected in parallel or in series that generate energy from solar radiation. For private applications and in small businesses, the solar modules are usually installed on the house roof. The output of the PV system created by interconnecting the modules depends on many factors such as the number of modules, module type and output, roof pitch or solar radiation.

PDF: What does a PV system cost

Using examples, we will explain to you what a PV project costs. The PDF also contains formulas to help you work out your own costs and profits.

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How are solar modules constructed?

In solar modules there are several solar cells connected in series or in parallel. These are protected by a hardened glass pane as the top module layer and a film underneath. The sun's rays penetrate the two transparent layers and then hit the solar cells, which convert the UV radiation into electricity. On the back, the cells are protected by a film (glass-film module) or another pane of glass (glass-glass module), depending on the module type.

Where are solar modules used?

Solar modules were developed for space travel as early as the late 1950s to supply satellites with electricity. It was not until the oil crisis in the 1970s that the decisive impetus was given to manufacture products for everyday use. For example, electrical devices such as pocket calculators or wristwatches with a few solar cells for power supply were developed and solar cells were used in signal systems or parking machines. At the same time, large-scale photovoltaic systems were set up to supply energy. For large-scale solar parks, low-cost thin-film modules were and are primarily used.

The idea of ​​a decentralized energy supply, in which every house is equipped with its own photovoltaic system, came up in the 1980s and became increasingly important. The 1,000 roofs program (1990) and the 100,000 roofs program (1999 - 2003) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) of 2000 provided decisive impulses for the implementation of this idea in Germany used. Photovoltaics has established itself as a pillar of a sustainable, resource-saving energy supply.

What types of solar modules are there?

Mono- or polycrystalline solar modules, PERC technology

The difference between monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar cells lies in the way they are manufactured. While monocrystalline cells are laboriously grown, the silicon for polycrystalline solar cells can be heated and poured into shape. Solar modules with monocrystalline solar cells have a high efficiency of up to 22%. The efficiency of polycrystalline photovoltaic modules is up to 20%. Both cell types are suitable for all applications. However, if the space on the roof is limited, more energy can be generated with monocrystalline solar cells. Polycrystalline modules, on the other hand, are cheaper due to their simpler production.

By using PERC technology (PERC = passivated emitter and rear cell), the efficiency of solar cells can be increased by 1% and more. The passivation of the emitter and the back of the cell increases the light yield and reduces electrical losses.

Glass-glass or glass-foil

In addition to performance and yield, mechanical strength and protection against environmental and weather influences play an important role in solar modules. Glass-glass modules are extremely robust against external influences and have a long service life. They also have a very high yield security. 30 year product and linear performance guarantee are included. Thanks to the innovative design and the light construction with 2 mm thin, tempered glass, they are just as easy to install as conventional modules.

Our glass-film modules also offer the usual premium quality from SOLARWATT. The construction is of high quality and in terms of performance the highest values ​​are achieved for this class. Complete protection is optionally available for glass-film modules.

In-roof or on-roof

Most solar systems are usually installed on the roof. The assembly is carried out with the help of a frame system, so that roof systems can be installed on almost any roof.

In-roof systems are characterized by a high aesthetic value, as the PV modules fit completely into the roof. As a weatherproof roof covering, they replace conventional roof tiles and are therefore self-financing.

In addition to elegant in-roof modules, building-integrated PV modules also provide the individual touch of solar systems. They can be used to create overhead glazing as required for a veranda or carport.