Why do I look bad?

Poor eyesight

Vision problems & poor eyesight

Symptoms & Therapies

Vision problems and poor eyesight - what forms are there? The language of medical professionals is peppered with technical terms and foreign words: myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, astigmatism, glaucoma and much more. But don't worry: what this is roughly about can be explained in a few sentences. What is hidden behind the individual visual impairments and vision problems? What symptoms indicate poor eyesight? You can find out here under the individual keywords.

Tip: Check your visual performance with our free online vision checks. If you find any signs of poor eyesight, you should have a professional eye test performed by an optician or an ophthalmologist.

myopia

Myopia is myopia. The medical term for this is myopia. Nearsighted people can see close objects perfectly, while distant objects can only see out of focus. This is due to the somewhat imprecise construction of the eye: Normally, the light rays coming from afar produce a sharp image in the eye exactly on the retina. In the case of myopia, however, the light rays are combined in front of the retina, the image on the retina becomes blurred. The eye of a nearsighted person is no worse than that of a normal sighted person - the eyeball is just too long. Myopia can usually be compensated for with glasses or contact lenses.

Suitable for this: Fern-Seh-Check - recognize myopia

Farsightedness

Farsightedness is also called farsightedness, in technical terms hyperopia or hypermetropia. A person with poor farsightedness can see clearly into the distance, but has problems with clear vision in the vicinity. This visual impairment is particularly noticeable when reading, but also when cooking, doing computer work or doing DIY. The cause is an eyeball that is a little too short - the incoming light rays do not come together to form an image on the retina. Without correction, they would theoretically only meet behind the retina. At a young age, a person with poor farsightedness can still see sharply, as the eye compensates for the clarity by increasing the curvature of the lens of the eye. This ability decreases with age, the lens is less elastic and glasses are necessary. How is this poor eyesight noticeable? The first symptoms are feelings of tension or pressure in the area of ​​the bridge of the nose / temples or headaches after long reading. Farsightedness is often a cause of squint in children. Farsightedness can easily be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

Suitable for this: near vision check - recognize farsightedness

Farsightedness in children

Most children are born with poor farsightedness. This is harmless because the children can compensate for their farsightedness with their very flexible eye lens. This farsightedness usually disappears on its own by the age of 6. However, severe farsightedness or a different degree of ametropia in both eyes must be corrected as early as possible. If left untreated, an incurable impaired vision (amblyopia) or a manifest strabismus can develop.

Presbyopia

Vision problems with age? This is nothing unusual, just the norm. In contrast to farsightedness, old age (farsightedness), or presbyopia in technical terms, is not the result of an eyeball that is too short, but arises from the natural aging process. From the age of 40 to 45, the lens and the circular muscles of the eye lose their elasticity. Focusing becomes more difficult, and reaching for reading glasses is mandatory. The poor eyesight worsens over the years, so that ultimately you also need compensation for medium distances - for example with the help of varifocal glasses or multifocal contact lenses.

Suitable for this: near vision check - recognize presbyopia

Astigmatism

Curvature of the cornea - also called astigmatism or astigmatism - can occur together with myopia or farsightedness and also as an independent ametropia. An eye that is intent on using a rod does not recognize a circular point as such, but rather slightly distorted as an ellipse or rod. The reason: the curvature of the cornea is uneven and the incident image is unclear. However, the brain automatically corrects this visual impression so that it is not consciously noticeable in everyday life. Vision only appears generally more indistinct. This visual defect can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses; surgical procedures are also possible.

Astigmatism in children

What Hans doesn't learn, Hans never learns: In children, severe astigmatism - like any other ametropia - should be compensated for by glasses as early as possible. Otherwise a lifelong visual impairment can develop because the eyes have never learned to see properly and sharply. This danger exists especially when only one eye is ametropic. After the age of six or seven, the eye can no longer catch up on what it has not learned before.

Red-green poor eyesight

The red-green visual impairment, often also called red-green blindness, is a disorder of the color sense. Those affected perceive red and green tones only in shades of gray. Around nine percent of men have red-green poor eyesight. Women are much more color-reliable: Only 0.8 percent of them are less able to distinguish between the colors red and green than their normal-sighted female counterparts. The red-green visual impairment is generally not particularly annoying in everyday life, the person affected has long since got used to the visual impression. For some professional groups such as pilots, graphic artists or police officers, however, good color vision is a prerequisite. The red-green visual impairment occurs in various degrees, is congenital and cannot be treated.

Suitable for this: color vision check - detect color blindness

Cataract

The cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye. It seems as if you are looking through a pane of frosted glass so that everything looks foggy and colors blur into gray. The loss of vision occurs slowly without the person experiencing pain. At the beginning of the poor eyesight, one often becomes a little more myopic, so that the optician has to be visited more often. In the long term, those affected cannot avoid an operation. The lens is removed and replaced with a plastic lens. An existing nearsightedness or farsightedness can be compensated for during the operation.

Green Star

Green star (glaucoma) is a disease in which the nerve cells in the retina die. The pressure inside the eye is also often increased in glaucoma. If left untreated, the disease leads to blindness. As the disease progresses slowly, it is difficult for those affected to notice the gradually worsening tunnel vision. Recognized early on, glaucoma eye disease can usually be stopped with medication. That is why regular examinations by the ophthalmologist are important.

Squint

Not everyone can look straight ahead! If you squint, you cannot align the direction of your two eyes parallel to each other. Squint (strabismus) is not just a blemish. With associated visual impairment, it is a real visual impairment. Strabismus is not the same as strabismus: There are different characteristics.

Latent squint (heterophoria)

With latent strabismus there is a disturbance of the eye muscle balance. Although the brain can largely compensate for this disturbance with the eye muscles, double vision can still occur in the event of fatigue and stress. In addition, headache and eye pain are often the result.

Manifest squint (heterotropia)

Manifest strabismus is a disorder of the eye muscle balance that can no longer be balanced by the brain. There is a permanent deviation of one eye from the intended line of sight. The manifest squint is always pathological. It can be divided into numerous subspecies such as accompanying strabismus and paralysis strabismus.

Concomitant strabismus (strabismus concomitans)

With an accompanying strabismus, the eyes move evenly in all directions, but are still not directed at one and the same object. The cross-eyed eye accompanies the non-cross-eyed eye. The squint angle is roughly the same for all eye movements. This disease must be treated in infancy in order to avoid the development of weak vision in the deviating eye.

Paralytic strabismus (strabismus paralyticus)

The paralysis squint can occur due to a neurological disease, as a result of an accident or after a disease of one or more eye muscles. The squint angle depends on the direction of view.

Important: The sooner a small child is diagnosed with squint, the more successfully it can be treated. This is usually done with specially adapted glasses, with prism lenses, through occlusion (masking an eye) or surgical correction.

Vitreous opacity

Mouches Volantes - this eye disease with the elegant French-sounding name is by no means harmless: The "flying flies" or "flying mosquitoes", as the translation goes, show up, for example, through black dots, spots or thread-like structures in the field of vision. Often these visual disturbances are caused by a liquefaction of the vitreous body or a detachment of the vitreous body from the retina. There are still no established methods of treating the disease. A few ophthalmologists have recently started using a non-invasive treatment - so-called laser vitreolysis.

Macular degeneration

The macula, also known as the yellow spot, is located in the center of the retina and is the place of sharpest vision. This approximately three to five millimeter large area is responsible for the essential visual performance. It enables us to read, recognize faces and fine details, and distinguish colors. The entire rest of the retina mainly only perceives outlines, light-dark contrasts and movements.

In the healthy eye, there is a lively metabolism in the macula, which supplies the visual cells with nutrients. With age, usually from the age of 50, this can lead to disorders: Deposits then form under the retina and the visual cells slowly die off. These symptoms are known as age-related macular degeneration, or AMD for short.

How does this eye disease make itself felt? Affected people see blurred, distorted or a dark spot in the center of the field of vision. Further symptoms are the decrease in visual acuity and thus the loss of reading ability and the ability to drive a car. Further symptoms are a deterioration in contrast perception, color vision, the ability to adapt to changed lighting conditions and an increase in glare sensitivity.

The age of onset and the severity of the symptoms vary and depend on the form of the disease. Sometimes only one eye is affected while the other continues to see well. Since the disease is usually limited to the macula, the external field of vision and thus the possibility of orientation for those affected remain. Even in the dark, those affected usually see relatively well despite their serious visual impairment.

AMD used to be incurable. But today there are already treatments with which the disease can often be positively influenced. More information about AMD from the Federal Association of Ophthalmologists.

The first signs of AMD can be determined with an online vision check, but only a professional examination can provide certainty. In order to recognize the eye disease as early as possible, it is advisable to visit the ophthalmologist every two years.

Suitable for this: Macular vision check - recognize macular disorder


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